destructive. While we can agree with Nietzsche that nihilism is a motor of modern history, it is a mistake to see it in purely negative terms. One of the greatest myths about contemporary violence is still connected to rather old psycho-analytical insights concerning fatalism and the egotistical downfall of the deluded man. Freud’s notion of the death drive in many ways is integral to the de-legitimation of the violence we do not like on account of its negation of human existence ( Freud, 1991 ). Of course, it is necessary to understand the psychic life of violence, and to
sovereignty. But it is more likely that the world system will go
through a prolonged period of turbulence and wars provoked by sudden changes and increasingly
unstable alliances, precisely because it is reproducing the history of the formation of the
European state system on a planetary scale.
Translated from Portugese by Juliano Fiori.
In the psychological and psychoanalytical theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, as in the
structural anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss, mythology occupies a
were killed’ (Neslen 2006: 143).
Unlike Ben Yehuda, some Israeli Jewish resisters travelled a long way to
our current oppositional stance, as I write in Chapter 5. In this chapter I want
to suggest that ‘our’ passionate love for the land is tinged with deep
melancholia. Melancholia as the impetus to evoking the Nakba is the central
argument of this book.
I begin this chapter with a discussion of Freud’s ‘Mourning and
melancholia’ (1957) in which he distinguishes between mourning, a normal
process of coming to terms with the loss of a loved object, a process that
in the military’s pursuit of full spectrum dominance, a strategy which understands the psychological dimensions of combat as inseparable from aerial, nautical, cyber, terrestrial and extraterrestrial fronts.
In Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety , Freud distinguishes ‘signal anxiety’ from its less evolved counterpart, automatic anxiety, on the basis of its anticipatory nature. It is not the loss of the object that produces the former condition, but rather the fear of the impending trauma this loss provokes. As the internal movement of drone networks increasingly
in connotation occurred in the first place, might give
us important insights about how and why people approach
The first authors to address the concept of shock in more
detail were Freud,3 Baudelaire,4 Simmel5 and Benjamin,6
who focused on the significant increase in stimuli in modern
environments and the way in which these stimuli affected
the modern individual as well as the fabric of modern society.
In its initial conception, shock was understood mainly in
relation to modern technologies and particularly the technologies of war. Shock was
psychoanalysis but it always
appears as a defence. 29 It is
best understood for the purposes of the present study as the unconscious
process whereby the individual attributes to another wishes, qualities
or feelings ‘that the subject repudiates or refuses to recognise
in himself’. 30 As
pointed out by Freud, the ego projects what it finds too unpleasurable
because of its intensity
collective memory not only beyond philosophy but against psychology.
Rejecting Freud’s argument that the unconscious acts as a repository for all past
experiences, Halbwachs argues that it is impossible for individuals to
remember outside of their group contexts. Another boundary for social memory
studies is its relation to historiography. Halbwachs sees history as dead
memory, a way of preserving pasts to which we no longer have an ‘organic’
Despite this polarisation between history and memory, there is growing
recognition that memory
forming different types
of social solidarity, often based on a common understanding
of the universe. Freud’s study of illusions as different forms
of escape in Civilization and Its Discontents26 helps us
understand the need for new illusions as a form of releasing
feelings of collective guilt and finding comfort, while Zizek’s
work on the role of illusions in modern ideological regimes—
communism and capitalism—is also an essential starting
point for understanding not only the manipulation of illusions, but more importantly, the way in which they are
conflict situations unless there is more fundamental change on the level
of rationalisations that operate in the constitution of political
identity and out of which structures develop.
Below I consider change in Lacanian psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis is concerned with
social change. Freud saw the goal of psychoanalysis – the talking
escaped into the streets [and] … was also one in which undigested concepts
23/10/98, 11:22 am
and ideas entered popular currency, Freud’s death-wish and Jung’s collective
unconscious being two cases in point’.14 Although Coker’s emphasis is on the
impact of war on that ‘modern consciousness’, it is also true that in opening
up the Pandora’s box of ‘Open Diplomacy’, Woodrow Wilson allowed the
popular consciousness to range freely over an area, that of international
relations, from where the populace had hitherto been