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Psychoanalysis in interwar France
Richard Bates

Psychoanalysis in 1934 was no longer a particularly young discipline. Sigmund Freud had published The Interpretation of Dreams , with its new theory of the unconscious mind and an early version of the Oedipus complex, some thirty-five years earlier in 1899 (dating it 1900 to emphasise its novelty and modernity). The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society was founded in 1902, and the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) in 1910. By the mid-1930s, Freud was in his late seventies with most of his major publications

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

of changes in attitudes to families, children and gender were appearing. As Sarah Fishman has shown, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir and Alfred Kinsey were becoming reference points for incipient changes in social attitudes around sexuality and the self, and France was becoming an ever more ‘psychologised’ society. 1 These developments followed a war and occupation in which 600,000 French soldiers and civilians died, 1.6 million soldiers became prisoners of war and 650,000 people undertook forced labour (Service du

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Doltomania
Richard Bates

, a turn to psychoanalysis was widely perceived as necessary to understand what was happening in French society. The early 1970s saw a publishing boom in psychoanalytic texts, and the University of Vincennes, founded as a direct response to the May events, included a Department of Psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud’s work had already been added to the philosophy syllabus for the baccalauréat in 1968. Around the same time, the use of psychoanalysis took off within psychiatry, as championed by psychiatrists such as Paul

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Popularising psychoanalysis, 1945–68
Richard Bates

everyday parenting questions as opportunities to disseminate psychoanalytic ideas, by explaining concepts like ‘neurosis’, ‘complex’ and ‘castration’ in ordinary language and emphasising their relevance to everyday life. Thus in one text she defined a neurosis as ‘the fact of feeling impotent, of feeling completely stuck in an impossible situation’. 19 This definition left out some central elements of Freud’s concept, such as the conflict between different psychical entities, or the return of the repressed. Rather than broach

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto and the psychoanalytic approach to autism in France
Richard Bates

schizophrenia. Bleuler conceived of autism as the process by which a child, wishing to avoid unsatisfying realities, replaces them with fantasies and hallucinations. Bleuler’s definition was close to, and indeed influenced by, Sigmund Freud’s terminology of ‘autoerotism’ (and later, ‘primary narcissism’). 8 Autism in this framework was understood to be an exaggeration of a trait that was present in all humans, but one that was pathological and connected to adult schizophrenia. The concept was taken up in the 1920s by Jean Piaget, who

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Dolto in the twenty-first century
Richard Bates

Tunisie , 21 March 1984, 7. (Cuttings in AFD, box labelled ‘Étranger – Tunisie’.) 8 Serge Le Péron, Françoise Dolto, le désir de vivre , TF1, 20 October 2008. 9 Pleux, Génération Dolto , p. 10. 10 Catherine Meyer and Mikkel Borsch-Jacobsen (eds), Le Livre noir de la psychanalyse: vivre, penser et aller mieux sans Freud (Paris: Arènes, 2010 (2005)). Chapters by Jacques van Rillaer, Jean Cottraux, Violaine Guéritault and

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Françoise breaks free?
Richard Bates

Margueritte’s La Garçonne (1922), a scandalous work owing to the sexual promiscuity and relative gender nonconformity of its lead character, though she ‘didn’t understand it at all’. 40 Henry’s library opened Dolto’s horizons to a wider world of knowledge, and indicated the direction of social, scientific and technological change. By 1924 it included books on and by Freud, probably translations of his 1909 Clark Lectures and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life , plus a 1924 explainer by Angelo Hesnard. 41 Françoise

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in the public sphere, 1968–88
Richard Bates

present in LAEPs by default, able to stage frequent, small-scale interventions with children and parents without being subject to the bureaucracy or accountability of a formal medical or psychotherapeutic engagement. In the apt words of the title of a (celebratory) 2013 book by two psychoanalysts, ‘Freud s’invite dans les lieux d’accueil enfants-parents’ – Freud invites himself into the LAEPs. 162 While other western countries have built comparable networks of children’s centres, these generally do not have

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Bonnie Evans

sale of 62,000 copies of his book in the English language, with more in translation, ‘I am ever more convinced that these principles are valid.’ 11 Furthermore, in 1938, Freud and his family moved from Vienna to London in order to escape persecution. Freud’s psychological take on instincts, society and individualism was becoming increasingly well known in Britain, in

in The metamorphosis of autism
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Tommy Dickinson

between 1870 and 1900 was significant in relation to the medicalisation of sexual behaviour, as this is where the sexological categories and lived social identities of both the ‘homosexual’ and the ‘heterosexual’ first came into being.127 Koven concurs and argues that the period between the 1860s and 1890s irrefutably constituted a watershed in the histories of sexualities and the medicalisation of sexually deviant behaviour in Great Britain.128 In 1905, Freud’s Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality were published in German. This was a seminal work where he first

in ‘Curing queers’