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Brad Evans

destructive. While we can agree with Nietzsche that nihilism is a motor of modern history, it is a mistake to see it in purely negative terms. One of the greatest myths about contemporary violence is still connected to rather old psycho-analytical insights concerning fatalism and the egotistical downfall of the deluded man. Freud’s notion of the death drive in many ways is integral to the de-legitimation of the violence we do not like on account of its negation of human existence ( Freud, 1991 ). Of course, it is necessary to understand the psychic life of violence, and to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

sovereignty. But it is more likely that the world system will go through a prolonged period of turbulence and wars provoked by sudden changes and increasingly unstable alliances, precisely because it is reproducing the history of the formation of the European state system on a planetary scale. Notes 1 Translated from Portugese by Juliano Fiori. 2 In the psychological and psychoanalytical theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, as in the structural anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss, mythology occupies a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Andrew Williams

“salon” escaped into the streets [and] … was also one in which undigested concepts MUP/Williams/Intro 6 23/10/98, 11:22 am 7 Introduction and ideas entered popular currency, Freud’s death-wish and Jung’s collective unconscious being two cases in point’.14 Although Coker’s emphasis is on the impact of war on that ‘modern consciousness’, it is also true that in opening up the Pandora’s box of ‘Open Diplomacy’, Woodrow Wilson allowed the popular consciousness to range freely over an area, that of international relations, from where the populace had hitherto been

in Failed imagination?
Leonie Murray

aggressive and bellicose nature of ‘man’: St Augustine, Hobbes, Rousseau and Freud, to name but a very few. The adage that ‘history is written by the victors’ highlights the salient fact that until relatively recently in human historiography, history has been about, or in some way revolved around, war and violent conflict. It is hardly surprising that a cursory glance at this ‘history’, then, would produce the conclusion that it is one of discord and bloodshed. For if history is written by victors then it follows that it is written by those concerned with victory; by those

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
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An act of queering citizenship
Zalfa Feghali

of identification as relational, requiring the presence of a distinct ‘other’ to use as a point of reference. Her theorisation of identification is rooted in a rereading of Freud’s understanding of the same process, which he sees as the central process by which an individual’s subjectivity is constituted. Fuss traces Freud’s reworking of the notion of identification to incorporate his work on hysteria, the Oedipus complex, narcissism, and the id-​ ego-​superego structure, while also focusing on identification in terms 26 Crossing borders and queering citizenship

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship
Julia Gallagher

IR tradition of seeing the state as an individual which r­ elates to other individual states, but to bring to this idea Klein’s work which also deals with the creation of subjectivity and the ways this is developed through relationships with those close to us and those far away. Inside/outside; thick/thin Klein, a follower of Freud, developed new and controversial ways of thinking about emotional and moral development. Working in London from the 1920s until her death in 1960, Klein based her theory on her clinical psychoanalytic work with children. Many of her

in Britain and Africa under Blair
Abstract only
A relational approach
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

, appearing to possess supernatural powers or malevolent intent ( Freud, 2003 ). It is also possible, as I have suggested, that the mask-like quality of Bayart’s extraverted image works because it is understood as such, and invested in, by Western observers too. Image, therefore, is significant not just as a way into understanding or seeing something, but as a shaper and site of negotiation between inside and outside. Image faces both ways, conveys different meanings outside and back in. Yet at the same time, it must encompass shared ground. It also

in Images of Africa
Janel B. Galvanek and Hans J. Giessmann

Impressionists’ depiction of everyday life in the nineteenth century and Betty Friedan’s depiction of the ‘problem that has no name’ – the everyday, unsatisfactory life of the American housewife in the 1950s. Sigmund Freud put a name to that most common of experiences – the everyday slip of the tongue, while the philosopher Roland Barthes sang the praises of that ubiquitous and all-purposeful material, plastic.6 In spite of the great diversity of their subject matter, all of these artists, writers and thinkers had one goal in common: to make the everyday significant. Highmore

in Cultures of governance and peace
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

the concept have to be traced back to the sources these authors draw on (Sivaramakrishnan 2005). In the case of Scott, these are E.P. Thompson, Clifford Geertz and Eric Wolf, and in particular the concepts of class, hegemony, moral economy, culture and lived experience in these authors. With these, Scott understands resistance as the conflict that emerges from the lived experience of subordination when it is fought for or negotiated with elites to achieve better terms for subordinates and maintain dignity and autonomy. Certeau draws on Bourdieu, Foucault and Freud

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
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Doing good in Africa
Julia Gallagher

purer sphere. But there is a second source of idealisation to do with the displacement of internal messiness. Kristeva identifies a tendency to export New Labour: doing good in Africa 21 the strangeness or nastiness intolerable in oneself as part of cosmopolitan approaches throughout European history. Freud explained it as the ‘narcissistic self … [which] projects out of itself what it experiences as dangerous or unpleasant in itself, making of it an alien double, uncanny and demoniacal’ (Kristeva, 1991: 183). This attempt to evacuate and control the uncomfortable

in Britain and Africa under Blair