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Irigaray and psychoanalytic theory
Hanneke Canters and Grace M. Jantzen

every case is alert to the effect of gender in relation to them. Rather than ponder the nature of the subject, for example, as though it were a universal subject (and therefore implicitly male), Irigaray discusses sexually different subjects; rather than consider desire in itself, Irigaray works with sexually different desire. This emphasis on desire and sexual difference obviously intersects with the psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Lacan, theories which had enormous impact on French philosophers of the time. Irigaray, in common with most other psychoanalytic

in Forever fluid
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Catholic imagination, modern Irish writing and the case of John McGahern
Frank Shovlin

Communion would regularly pass out in the bad air and have to be carried outside. Not to attend Sunday Mass was to court social ostracism, to be seen as mad or consorting with the devil.’ In such a world, heaven, hell and purgatory were as real to him as England or America. But this intense, unquestioning belief slipped away from him as an adolescent so that, as he memorably puts it, he awoke one day ‘like a character in a Gaelic poem’ and realised he was no longer dreaming. ‘The way I view that whole world now’, he writes, ‘is expressed in Freud’s essay “The Future of an

in Irish Catholic identities
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A reading of Luce Irigaray’s Elemental Passions

The recognition of a female subject is relatively recent in Western philosophy, through Western intellectual history, it has been assumed to be normatively male. This book provides the first English commentary on Luce Irigaray's poetic text, Elemental Passions, setting it within its context within continental thought. It explores Irigaray's images and intentions, developing the gender drama that takes place within her book, and draws the reader into the conversation in the text between 'I-woman' and 'you-man'. In Irigaray's philosophy of sexual difference love is of ultimate significance for the development and mutual relationship of two subjects. The book explains how the lack of a subject position for women is related to the emergence of rigid binaries, and catches a hint of how subversive attention to fluidity is to the masculinist pattern. This emphasis on desire and sexual difference obviously intersects with the psychoanalytic theories of S. Freud and J. Lacan, theories which had enormous impact on French philosophers of the time. Irigaray has used vivid imagery from the very beginning of her writings. A few of her images, in particular that of the lips, have become famous in feminist writings. The development of mutually affirming sexual subjects, different but not oppositional, and thereby the destabilizing of traditional binary categories of oppositional logic, is simultaneously highly innovative and has far-reaching consequences. The book presents a critique of Irigaray's methods and contentions to critical scrutiny, revisiting the idea of fluidity in relation to logic.

Morny Joy

/Otherness, particularly as this term has featured in acts of denial that have deprived women of an identity of their own. Jacques Derrida and Jacques Lacan are major influences, but she does not accept their work at face value. Irigaray’s oeuvre also needs to be set in the wider context of the developments in French thought since 1930, specifically the impact of such diverse thinkers as Hegel, Freud and Heidegger. Irigaray is neither a theologian nor a philosopher of religion in the traditional sense, and I think it is a mistake to try to make her one. The body of her work, especially

in Divine love
Benjamin J. Elton

traditionalism by forces led by the Beth Din, which had become increasingly ascendant.35 This contention was summed up in the New London Synagogue publication Quest in 1967, which argued that ‘the growing intolerance manifested by the Chief Rabbinate and the Beth Din was gradually destroying what Hertz called “the Anglo-Jewish position in theology” which he defined as “Progressive Conservatism” . . . the new climate was mainly due to . . . the Dayanim’.36 Freud Kandel has constructed the most developed analysis of the Jacobs Affair. She argues that Brodie did not possess a

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Benjamin J. Elton

asphyxiating and led to scholarly and theological stagnation.3 Scholars, for example Meirovich, have understood J.H. Hertz’s platform of ‘progressive conservatism’ as not being a traditional theological position. Meirorich and he and Freud Kandel have both argued that this ‘middle-of-the-road’ ideology came under attack from European The Chief Rabbis’ impact on Anglo-Jewry 265 refugees led by Yehezkel Abramsky, the most powerful engine moving the Chief Rabbinate away from its earlier, more tolerant and liberal position.4 Meirovich’s Vindication of Judaism argues that

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Benjamin J. Elton

theory, Hertz would have claimed he was only swayed by the strength of the scholarship; in practice, he always drew the line (between what he considered acceptable and heretical) at the foot of Mount Sinai. Theology of J.H. Hertz 179 Nevertheless, Hertz’s analysis led him to the conviction that the revival of traditional Judaism and the intellectual defeat of the Higher Critics could only be achieved by Wissenschaft scholars. As Freud Kandel has observed, Hertz placed his faith in the future of his brand of Judaism in a particular education programme. In 1913 he

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Abstract only
Benjamin J. Elton

polemical, written to celebrate Machzike Hadath and the Federation of Synagogues respectively. Their central thesis is that the Chief Rabbis were weak in learning and suspect in theology, and that they presided over religious laxity which the leaders of the new organisation found unacceptable and rose up to oppose.41 David Englander’s brilliant essay Anglicized not Anglican: Jews and Judaism in Victorian Britain looks at AngloJewry too much through the prism of Marxist history, but is often extremely insightful; this study uses a number of ideas found there.42 Miri Freud

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Heather Walton

) journey to the centre of darkness and reverses the familiar paradigm of the ascent of man, who leaves the base world of flesh and desire to achieve enlightenment. In the work’s first essay she interrupts Freud’s discourses on female sexuality and displays how the ‘old man’ has been seduced by an older reverie, the dream of symmetry. He has thus ‘failed to notice’ the specificity of the female in his construction of desire. The difficult trajectory he prescribes in relation to the ‘achievement’ of femininity is based on the presumption that the little girl is identical

in Literature, theology and feminism
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A world of difference
Morny Joy

on Irigaray’s dismantling of Freud’s interpretation of the baby Ernst’s game of ‘fort-da’, in her essay ‘Belief Itself (1993b).2 Irigaray here demonstrates that while Freud’s description of his grandson’s behaviour ostensibly explains the child’s conquest of his fears of abandonment by his mother, something of more tragic proportions is at stake. This ‘mastery of the mother’ both by Ernst himself and by Freud’s commentary, is symptomatic for Irigaray of the original denial or repression of the mother’s primal role in the child’s life. As Irigaray observes: Thus the

in Divine love