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Editor: Saul Dubow

The history and sociology of science has not been well developed in southern Africa as compared to India, Australia or Latin America. This book deals with case studies drawn from South Africa, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), Mozambique and Mauritius, and examines the relationship between scientific claims and practices, and the exercise of colonial power. European intellectuals saw in Africa images of their own prehistory and societal development. The book reveals the work of the Swiss naturalist and anthropologist Henri Junod. The relative status of Franco-Mauritian, Creoles and Indo-Mauritian peasants was an important factor in gaining knowledge of and access to canes. After the Boer War, science was one of the regenerating forces, and the British Association found it appropriate to hold its 1905 meetings in the Southern African subcontinent. White farmers in the Cape Colony in the late nineteenth century often greeted with suspicion the enumeration of livestock and crop. The book focuses on the connections between the apartheid state's capacity to count and to control. Apartheid statecraft included aspirations of totalising modes of racialised knowledge. Included in the theme of state rationality and techniques of domination is the specialized use of dogs by police in apprehending black alleged criminals. The book discusses the Race Welfare Society, which turned to eugenics for a blueprint on how to cultivate a healthy and productive white population. However, George Gale and Sidney and Emily Kark advocated socialised medicine, and had a genuine desire to promote the broad health needs of Africans.

George Gale and South Africa's experiment in social medicine
Shula Marks

the 1950s an Assistant Director General of WHO) and George Gale, who was appointed Chief Medical Officer and Secretary for Health in 1946 by Dr Henry Gluckman, South Africa’s only progressive Minister of Health before 1994. Without their assistance and the recommendations of the Gluckman Commission, the Karks’ pioneering achievements in South Africa would have been if not impossible, at least far more

in Science and society in southern Africa
Abstract only
Saul Dubow

-free and beneficial to all – in order to recognise the limitations of this critique. In the two contributions in this volume concerned with medical science the complexities of this debate are well illustrated. Shula Marks’ study of George Gale’s advocacy of socialised medicine, during and after the Second World War, cautions against views which assume that all medical knowledge served the interests

in Science and society in southern Africa