Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 122 items for :

  • "Humanitarianism" x
  • Manchester Political Studies x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All

This collection interrogates the representation of humanitarian crisis and catastrophe, and the refraction of humanitarian intervention and action, from the mid-twentieth century to the present, across a diverse range of media forms: traditional and contemporary screen media (film, television and online video) as well as newspapers, memoirs, music festivals and social media platforms (such as Facebook, YouTube and Flickr). The book thus explores the historical, cultural and political contexts that have shaped the mediation of humanitarian relationships since the middle of the twentieth century. Together, the chapters illustrate the continuities and connections, as well as the differences, which have characterised the mediatisation of both states of emergency and acts of amelioration. The authors reveal and explore the significant synergies between the humanitarian enterprise, the endeavour to alleviate the suffering of particular groups, and media representations, and their modes of addressing and appealing to specific publics. The chapters consider the ways in which media texts, technologies and practices reflect and shape the shifting moral, political, ethical, rhetorical, ideological and material dimensions of international humanitarian emergency and intervention, and have become integral to the changing relationships between organisations, institutions, governments, individual actors and entire sectors.

Laura Suski

’ children by purchasing environmentally friendly products, or we might act against child labour practices in ‘distant’ nations by purchasing garments manufactured by particular companies. These practices raise several questions of a global humanitarianism for children. Can the intent to protect ‘our’ children extend to a more universalised impulse to protect ‘other’, more distant children? What are the limitations of

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

. Particularly important in this debate has been the perceived erosion of humanitarian independence and other humanitarian principles. Generally, this debate rests on the fissure between those who define humanitarianism narrowly and those who wish to broaden its scope and applicability ( Jackson and Walker 1999 ). Weiss (1999) offers a useful spectrum of

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
The British Order of St John of Jerusalem and the Red Cross in the Spanish civil wars of the 1870s
Jon Arrizabalaga, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, and J. Carlos García-Reyes

neutrality adopted in the Geneva Convention. It is, therefore, a remarkable early experience of the involvement of a national society of the Red Cross movement in a civil war. 6 As suggested by Rebecca Gill, the history of humanitarianism and of the Red Cross is complex and needs to ‘take account of intricate blends of motivation and ideals’ of ‘those claiming to be “doing good”’. 7 Intersections between the Order of St John of Jerusalem and the international Red Cross Movement and, more generally, war humanitarianism, have not yet been sufficiently studied. This

in The Red Cross Movement
Authors: Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Over recent years, the relationship between humanitarians and the military has become especially controversial. Concerns over inefficient and duplicated assistance programs and the compromised security of relief workers have been regularly highlighted. Many point to ongoing tensions and polarized positions that seem to leave NGOs a stark choice between “neutrality” and co-option. Using Afghanistan as a case study, this book analyses this apparent duality. It puts forward five basic arguments. First, the history of the relationship extends prior to the birth of modern humanitarianism. Second, inter-organizational friction is common between groups and it does not always have a detrimental impact. Third, working with the military does not necessarily create more dangerous situations for NGOs. Fourth, humanitarian principles are not a fixed set of propositions, but evolve according to temporal and situational context. Finally, humanitarians are generally not co-opted, but rather willingly take part in political-military endeavors. In all, it is suggested that NGOs tend to change their policies and actions depending on the context. The book thus transcends the simple “for” or “against” arguments, leading to a more refined understanding of the relationship between NGOs and the military.

Abstract only
Humanitarianism and intervention from the 1890s to the present

Scholars and practitioners alike have identified interventions on behalf of Armenians as watersheds in the history of humanitarianism. This volume reassesses these claims, critically examining a range of interventions by governments, international and diasporic organisations and individuals that aimed to bring ‘aid to Armenia’. Drawing on perspectives from a range of disciplines, the chapters trace the history of these interventions from the 1890s to the present, paying particular attention to the aftermaths of the Genocide and the upheavals of the post-Soviet period. Geographically, they connect diverse spaces, including the Caucasus, Russia and the Middle East, Europe, North America and South America, and Australia, revealing shifting transnational networks of aid and intervention. These chapters are followed by reflections by leading scholars in the fields of refugee history and Armenian history, Professor Peter Gatrell and Professor Ronald Grigor Suny, respectively.

Myths, practices, turning points

This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies (both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War. The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested organisation.

Abstract only
Jo Laycock and Francesca Piana

Recognising humanitarianism: Armenia and the Aurora Prize In April 2016, one year after the centennial of the Armenian Genocide, the Aurora Prize for Awakening Humanity was inaugurated in Yerevan, capital of the Republic of Armenia. Initiated by Armenian-American and Russian philanthropists Vartan Gregorian, Noubar Afeyan and Ruben Vardanyan, the prize recognises ‘any individual or group that commits an extraordinary act of humanity’. 1 The first prize was awarded to Marguerite Barankitse for her long-term engagement in saving, sheltering and educating

in Aid to Armenia
Abstract only
Vicki Squire, Nina Perkowski, Dallal Stevens, and Nick Vaughan-Williams

safety. It explores the distinct challenges that people on the move encountered across different member states in 2015 and 2016, and follows the frustration of many on reaching the EU. Reflecting on people's stated expectations of Europe, the chapter highlights the EU's attraction as a place that projects itself as upholding human rights and humanitarianism for people seeking safety. 2 Contrasting this with the lived experiences of people on the move across the EU, we chronicle sub-standard living conditions, a lack of

in Reclaiming migration
Vicki Squire, Nina Perkowski, Dallal Stevens, and Nick Vaughan-Williams

this new ‘crisis’ footing, it also perpetuated the older dual narrative of both ‘securing borders’ and ‘saving lives’ that had already been established in the 2011 GAMM (European Commission, 2011 ). With its focus on deterring ‘would-be’ arrivals from leaving for the EU in order to reduce deaths at sea, this confusing blend of securitised-humanitarianism became the defining hallmark of the European Commission's narrated response to the ‘crisis’ (see Chapter 3 ). This was typified by Operation Sophia, part of the EUNAVFOR MED military task force which, from June

in Reclaiming migration