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The Church of England and the Expansion of the Settler Empire, c. 1790–1860
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When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.

Sally Mayall Brasher

from the church to the commune occurred. Brodman, Racine, and Mambretti, have recently suggested the ecclesiastical powers remained in control throughout the period. 65 In fact, while the institutional church was resistant to ceding its power, there is abundant evidence of the civic authorities exerting authority over charitable institutions in the fourteenth century while by 1450 they were appropriating all control over the hospitals and seeking to consolidate them into larger civic institutions. Evidence from the first half of the fifteenth century suggests an

in Hospitals and charity
Joseph Hardwick

Chapter one, which examines the recruitment of the foot-soldiers of the institutional Church, draws attention to the sheer variety of clergy who peopled the Church in the British world in the pre-1860 period. The chapter highlights common dynamics in the development of the colonial clerical profession in the three chosen case studies. We will see that the aims of churchmen from across the Church party spectrum were frustrated by a persistent set of recruitment problems back in Britain—the major problem being that was no centralised or coordinated system for recruiting clergy. The first part of the chapter surveys the range of government organisations, voluntary groups and private individuals that played a part in recruitment; the second half provides a detailed examination of the clergy themselves. A number of questions about the recruitment, training, education and social and ethnic backgrounds of the clergy are considered. The recruitment of clergy shows that power was far from being centralised in the colonial Church: this was an institution that was made up a variety of networks and connections; it was also one that allowed a range of actors to have a hand in finding the men who would staff and run the colonial Church.

in An Anglican British World
Church power in the Puritan Revolution, 1638–44
Author:

The years 1638 through 1644 straddle a crucial divide in British history, as calls for religious reform and renewal mutated into political revolution. This book seeks to bring coherence to a pre-revolutionary historiography that focuses on questions of conformity to and semi-separatism from 'the church by law established' and a post-1642 historiography built around a coarse polarity between 'presbyterianism' and 'independency'. It recognises that the 1640s brought new men to the fore and an intense interaction between religious divines and lay Members of Parliament (MPs) who struggled for control of a nation and the future of its church. While the historiographical rediscovery since the 1980s of Protestant scholasticism has helped to rescue post-Reformation English puritanism from the realms of pietistic platitudes, it has not been equally applied to the field of ecclesiology. The book questions the use of various pamphlet sources and also engages in a careful analysis of several well-known, but relatively unused, texts. It provides a methodology for how to approach the published volumes on the Westminster assembly edited by Chad Van Dixhoorn. Presbyterianism, much less Scottish presbyterianism, was not a forgone conclusion when the Westminster assembly first met. The book seeks to show that the dynamics in the Westminster assembly owes far more to esprit de corps within a body confident in the calling of its members by God without any need to seek puppet-masters across the road from the Abbey Church of St Peter.

Alternative models of the Church in Britain and Ireland, c.1570–c.1700

Catholicism and Presbyterianism were the most powerful alternatives to the varieties of Protestant episcopalianism, which secured the backing of governments from the 1560s to the 1680s, challenging that order in each of the three insular kingdoms - England, Ireland and Scotland. This book explores some of the complexities of the Catholic and Presbyterian projects in each, focusing on how they sought to gain, or regain, the position of church establishments inclusive of entire populations and exclusive in their claims, the guardians of the spiritual welfare of nations, and how they sought to adapt to the fact that most of the time such aspirations were far short of fulfilment. It studies the changing views on church and state and suggests the value of a comparative approach to the intellectual history of Presbyterianism, one that attends to the reciprocal influence of English, Irish, Scottish and American Presbyterians on each other, and also registers the shaping role of national context. Presbyterianism looked different in each of the nation. In England, most Presbyterians became increasingly liberal theologically, drifting from moderate Baxterian Calvinism towards Arminianism, and then towards Arianism, Socinianism and Unitarianism; in Scotland, they became sharply divided between Calvinists and Moderates; in Ulster, the orthodox remained ascendant, but there was a liberal minority; in America, divisions between revivalists and their critics disguised a basic Calvinist consensus.

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The Church of England, migration and the British world
Joseph Hardwick

broaden our understanding of how the institutional Church was transformed from a privileged establishment into what was ostensibly a great voluntary association. 12 While there is a growing literature on how the Church and individual clergymen negotiated this dramatic shift, 13 some of the implications of the change of status have not been fully examined. Here we will see how the

in An Anglican British World
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Sally Mayall Brasher

general criticism of ecclesiastical institutions' inability or unwillingness to meet the charitable demands of these communities. While the universal desire for legitimization of hospital foundations by ecclesiastical authority indicates the still active perception of the all-powerful institutional church, the specifications for lay control by founders indicates the suspicion and declining respect for this institution's actual ability to provide these social services. Still, once hospitals were founded and approved they tended to follow a method of administration that

in Hospitals and charity
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Joseph Hardwick

era of the Colonial Bishoprics’ Fund. Anderson’s history was founded on the assumption that there was such a thing as a unified ‘colonial Church’. 1 The establishment of a coherent and unified institutional church was an enduring preoccupation of Anglican clergymen in the first half of the nineteenth century. Chapter Four showed that efforts to tie the disparate colonial Anglican establishments together

in An Anglican British World
Oliver P. Rafferty

by any attempt of the church to veto this. We will here be appealing directly to the people … There may be scope here for using the Peace People.’26 This was part of a bigger and grander strategy of the government in relation to the church and the Catholic community. Not only did the government decide it needed to enlist the hierarchy’s good offices in its propaganda war against the IRA, but it also saw the need to reduce the institutional church’s hold over the Catholic community for altogether other reasons. As one Northern Ireland Office official put it: The

in Irish Catholic identities
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Brian Heffernan

of the Irish War of Independence. If church historians’ main concern in the past was the functioning of the institutional church and the official formulation of its theology, nowadays it is ‘the place of religion within the community, … facets of daily Christian life and the impact of social and cultural factors upon pious practice’.14 Examining the attempts of priests to shape social and political behaviour can contribute to this approach. And in a comparable development, the attention of historians of the War 11 Joost Augusteijn, From Public Defiance to

in Freedom and the Fifth Commandment