The authors investigate the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of wider-scale warfare. Unlike the great wars found in modern history, the dominant form of warfare in recent years has become internal. The main actors are non-state groups seeking to replace an existing political order through violent means. Terrorism, especially indiscriminate attacks on unarmed civilians, has been an important component of these groups’ tactical repertoires. The purpose of this study is to explore variations in the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of war. The authors draw on the largely separate literatures on terrorism and warfare as well as complementary sources of data on terrorist events, insurgent groups, and various forms of armed conflict. The product of this analysis is a mapping of the frequencies of terrorist attacks over time and the identification of these attacks as occurring during the beginning, middle, or ending stages of wider-scale warfare. This is followed by in-depth discussions of the insurgent groups whose use of terrorism matches each of these patterns as well as the contexts within which these groups operate. Readers of this book will include students, scholars, policy-makers, members of the military, and the general public.
humanitarian independence is not a complete fiction either. An accurate portrait is drawn
in Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed , a book published by MSF-CRASH some years
ago. Its authors argued that relief groups could be thought of as ‘unreliable
friends’, constantly bargaining with donors (not to mention governments and insurgent
groups in the countries in which they do their work). An important problem relief agencies face
today, which is almost certain to grow worse in the coming decade, is that their success in
negotiations can be in vain if donors
A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders
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‘hearts and minds’ and gather information on the Taliban. NGOs
vehemently criticised this classic counter-insurgency strategy, accusing the PRTs of
compromising their neutrality by ‘blurring the line between humanitarian
activity and military operations’ and endangering them. Without a doubt, that
dividing line – if it exists – was blurred in Afghanistan, but at a
much deeper level than this superficial one. The entire international aid system,
including the NGOs, was working
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enhancement of their room for manoeuvre? The reciprocity of
state–state relations is absent when you are trying to defeat an insurgency and more
generally deter opposition. Can humanitarians tolerate a new dispensation of this sort that
formally recognises the unprotected status of enemy combatants and political dissidents?
One answer to this is to argue that the global humanitarian system is adapting. The talk of
more sustained partnership between local and global NGOs is an example of this. But we need to
be wary of thinking that there has been
Interrogation, Intelligence and Security examines the origins and effects of a group of controversial interrogation techniques often described as torture, known as the ‘five techniques’. Focusing on the colony of Aden at a time when British rule was being challenged by nationalist insurgents (1963-67), on the height of ‘the troubles’ in Northern Ireland (1971) and the conflict in Iraq (2003), the book explores the use of hooding to restrict vision, white noise, stress positions, limited sleep and a limited diet. Through its in-depth analysis the book reveals how British forces came to use such controversial methods in counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism and internal security contexts. In Aden and Northern Ireland the techniques were a part of policy, used because of the British military’s belief – a belief adopted by members of government – that the techniques would increase the amount and quality of intelligence obtained during interrogation. In Iraq the techniques were used for a much more complex set of factors that can be categorised into facilitating and motivating factors. The book finds that while it is likely that some intelligence was produced from these interrogations, the techniques had widespread and long-lasting negative effects that should be taken into account when judging whether these and similar techniques can be justified.
contexts in which there is wider-scale warfare. Our third task involves analyzing whether and how these patterns relate to the outcomes of conflict. Our
focus here is on whether groups tend to succeed or fail when terrorist tactics
are employed at different stages in a wider conflict. We answer these questions through a combination of descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis.
Terrorism as an insurgent tactic
Clearly terrorism can be incorporated into the repertoire of tactics used by
insurgents as part of their long-term struggles. In fact, it is hard to think of
Conclusions and forecasts
This effort to understand the place of terrorism in twenty-first century warfare
began with a review of the explanations for why terrorism may have been
used during discrete phases of insurgencies, as proposed by revolutionary
theorists such as Mao, General Giap, and others. Current circumstances
suggest a more complicated picture, however, than these theorists supposed. It may be that the strategies of insurgent groups have changed over
time. The causes may lie in the enormous population shift from rural to urban
and the increasing