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The authors investigate the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of wider-scale warfare. Unlike the great wars found in modern history, the dominant form of warfare in recent years has become internal. The main actors are non-state groups seeking to replace an existing political order through violent means. Terrorism, especially indiscriminate attacks on unarmed civilians, has been an important component of these groups’ tactical repertoires. The purpose of this study is to explore variations in the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of war. The authors draw on the largely separate literatures on terrorism and warfare as well as complementary sources of data on terrorist events, insurgent groups, and various forms of armed conflict. The product of this analysis is a mapping of the frequencies of terrorist attacks over time and the identification of these attacks as occurring during the beginning, middle, or ending stages of wider-scale warfare. This is followed by in-depth discussions of the insurgent groups whose use of terrorism matches each of these patterns as well as the contexts within which these groups operate. Readers of this book will include students, scholars, policy-makers, members of the military, and the general public.

David Rieff

humanitarian independence is not a complete fiction either. An accurate portrait is drawn in Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed , a book published by MSF-CRASH some years ago. Its authors argued that relief groups could be thought of as ‘unreliable friends’, constantly bargaining with donors (not to mention governments and insurgent groups in the countries in which they do their work). An important problem relief agencies face today, which is almost certain to grow worse in the coming decade, is that their success in negotiations can be in vain if donors

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders

the Red Cross , 93 : 884 , 1085 – 105 , doi: 10.1017/S181638311200032X . Rietjens , S. J. H. ( 2008 ), Civil-Military Cooperation in Response to a Complex Emergency: Just Another Drill? ( Leiden : Brill ). Rietjens , S. , Soeters , J. and van Fenema , P. C. ( 2013 ), ‘Learning from Afghanistan: Towards a Compass for Civil–Military Coordination’ Small Wars & Insurgencies , 24 : 2 , 257 – 77 , doi: 10.1080/09592318.2013.778027 . Svoboda , E. ( 2014 ), ‘The Interaction between Humanitarian and Military Actors: Where Do We Go from

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

) . Magee , H. ( 2018 ), Faking It: Fake News and How It Impacts the Charity Sector ( London : International Broadcasting Trust ). Mamdani , M. ( 2007 ), ‘ The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency ’, London Review of Books , 29 : 5 , 5 – 8 . McIntyre , L. ( 2018 ), Post-Truth ( Cambridge, MA : MIT Press ). Mill , J. S. ( 1859 ), On Liberty ( London : Penguin Classics , 1974 ). Milton , J

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

‘hearts and minds’ and gather information on the Taliban. NGOs vehemently criticised this classic counter-insurgency strategy, accusing the PRTs of compromising their neutrality by ‘blurring the line between humanitarian activity and military operations’ and endangering them. Without a doubt, that dividing line – if it exists – was blurred in Afghanistan, but at a much deeper level than this superficial one. The entire international aid system, including the NGOs, was working

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

& Development , 5 : 2 , 141 – 59 . Duffield , M. ( 2007 ), Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples ( Cambridge : Polity Press ). Evans , B. and Giroux , H. A. ( 2015 ), Disposable Futures: The Seduction of Violence in the Age of the Spectacle ( San Francisco : City Lights Books ). Evans , B. ( 2008 ), ‘ The Zapatista Insurgency: Bringing the Political Back into Conflict Analysis ’, New Political Science , 30 : 4 , 497 – 520 . Evans , B. ( 2010 ), ‘ Life Resistance: Towards a Different Concept of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

enhancement of their room for manoeuvre? The reciprocity of state–state relations is absent when you are trying to defeat an insurgency and more generally deter opposition. Can humanitarians tolerate a new dispensation of this sort that formally recognises the unprotected status of enemy combatants and political dissidents? One answer to this is to argue that the global humanitarian system is adapting. The talk of more sustained partnership between local and global NGOs is an example of this. But we need to be wary of thinking that there has been

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Controversial British techniques

Interrogation, Intelligence and Security examines the origins and effects of a group of controversial interrogation techniques often described as torture, known as the ‘five techniques’. Focusing on the colony of Aden at a time when British rule was being challenged by nationalist insurgents (1963-67), on the height of ‘the troubles’ in Northern Ireland (1971) and the conflict in Iraq (2003), the book explores the use of hooding to restrict vision, white noise, stress positions, limited sleep and a limited diet. Through its in-depth analysis the book reveals how British forces came to use such controversial methods in counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism and internal security contexts. In Aden and Northern Ireland the techniques were a part of policy, used because of the British military’s belief – a belief adopted by members of government – that the techniques would increase the amount and quality of intelligence obtained during interrogation. In Iraq the techniques were used for a much more complex set of factors that can be categorised into facilitating and motivating factors. The book finds that while it is likely that some intelligence was produced from these interrogations, the techniques had widespread and long-lasting negative effects that should be taken into account when judging whether these and similar techniques can be justified.

Data and measurement
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

contexts in which there is wider-scale warfare. Our third task involves analyzing whether and how these patterns relate to the outcomes of conflict. Our focus here is on whether groups tend to succeed or fail when terrorist tactics are employed at different stages in a wider conflict. We answer these questions through a combination of descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis. Terrorism as an insurgent tactic Clearly terrorism can be incorporated into the repertoire of tactics used by insurgents as part of their long-term struggles. In fact, it is hard to think of

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

6 Conclusions and forecasts This effort to understand the place of terrorism in twenty-first century warfare began with a review of the explanations for why terrorism may have been used during discrete phases of insurgencies, as proposed by revolutionary theorists such as Mao, General Giap, and others. Current circumstances suggest a more complicated picture, however, than these theorists supposed. It may be that the strategies of insurgent groups have changed over time. The causes may lie in the enormous population shift from rural to urban and the increasing

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare