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British relief to the Balkans, 1876–78
Rebecca Gill

enemy. 6 Though rarely stated so bluntly, relief to Christians became a practical expression of support for the Balkan insurgents, or at the very least a show of solidarity with the ‘oppressed’. Many such agencies proclaimed strict impartiality in the provision of relief – and congratulated themselves on a magnanimity

in Calculating compassion
Controversial British techniques

Interrogation, Intelligence and Security examines the origins and effects of a group of controversial interrogation techniques often described as torture, known as the ‘five techniques’. Focusing on the colony of Aden at a time when British rule was being challenged by nationalist insurgents (1963-67), on the height of ‘the troubles’ in Northern Ireland (1971) and the conflict in Iraq (2003), the book explores the use of hooding to restrict vision, white noise, stress positions, limited sleep and a limited diet. Through its in-depth analysis the book reveals how British forces came to use such controversial methods in counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism and internal security contexts. In Aden and Northern Ireland the techniques were a part of policy, used because of the British military’s belief – a belief adopted by members of government – that the techniques would increase the amount and quality of intelligence obtained during interrogation. In Iraq the techniques were used for a much more complex set of factors that can be categorised into facilitating and motivating factors. The book finds that while it is likely that some intelligence was produced from these interrogations, the techniques had widespread and long-lasting negative effects that should be taken into account when judging whether these and similar techniques can be justified.

Humanity and relief in war, Britain 1870–1914
Author: Rebecca Gill

The history of relief work is in its infancy. This book draws on new archival research to reveal the priorities of nineteenth-century relief workers, and the legacies of their preoccupations for relief work today. It first explores the inauguration of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War (NAS) at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 under the figurehead of Loyd Lindsay. Then, the book sees the revival of the NAS for work in the Balkans during a period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It also follows the staff of relief committees as they dispensed aid in British colonial wars. The book examines the critiques of British policy in the Boer War (1899-1902) emanating from intersecting circles of Quakers, New Liberals and ethicists, and considers these groups' offer of aid to Boer civilians. Further, the book concentrates on the methodologies of relief for Boer inmates of British concentration camps in South Africa and on the implications of this relief for its intended recipients during and after the war. It concentrates on aid to British soldiers. The book closes by tracing continuities in vocational practices and dispositions to emerging areas of concern in the post-war period, in particular child welfare, and briefly considers their implication for relief work today.

This edited collection surveys how non-Western states have responded to the threats of domestic and international terrorism in ways consistent with and reflective of their broad historical, political, cultural and religious traditions. It presents a series of eighteen case studies of counterterrorism theory and practice in the non-Western world, including countries such as China, Japan, India, Pakistan, Egypt and Brazil. These case studies, written by country experts and drawing on original-language sources, demonstrate the diversity of counterterrorism theory and practice and illustrate that how the world ‘sees’ and responds to terrorism is different from the way that the United States, the United Kingdom and many European governments do. This volume – the first ever comprehensive account of counterterrorism in the non-Western world – will be of interest to students, scholars and policymakers responsible for developing counterterrorism policy.

An ad hoc response to an enduring and variable threat
Rashmi Singh

threats posed to its national security. This chapter aims to broadly outline India's unenviable track record with terrorism within its sovereign borders as well as provide a critical overview and evaluation of its response to the same. In what follows, I first discuss how the unprecedented overlap between terrorism and insurgency within the subcontinent represents a key challenge to formulating an understanding of terrorism and counterterrorism in this context. I then briefly discuss the emergence and evolution of key terrorist groups in the country before

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Abstract only
The growth of terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria, 1999–2016
Jennifer Giroux and Michael Nwankpa

Introduction Most discussions about terrorism in Nigeria – and, indeed, Africa more broadly – tend to be about the Nigerian-based group referred to as Boko Haram – and for good reason. Formed in the early 2000s out of a small religious sect in the northeast of Nigeria, over the years Boko Haram has become an increasingly violent force that evolved into a full-blown insurgency in 2009 – a year that is also notable as it marked the decline of a completely different insurgency in Nigeria's Niger Delta region in the south. Since then, sustained

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Conflict, displacement and human security in Burma (Myanmar)
Hazel J. Lang

suffered the brunt of the conflict. Minority insurgency struggles and their suppression through counter-insurgency campaigns by military-dominated governments have been fought out over a battlefield of civilian populations ( Lang, 2002 : Chapter 3 ). Over the decades, the direct and indirect impacts of ‘low intensity’ conflict have been pervasive and destructive, resulting in

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Ekaterina Stepanova

Introduction The definition of terrorism used in this chapter interprets it as premeditated use or threat to use violence against civilian and other non-combatant targets intended to create broader intimidation and destabilization effects in order to achieve political goals by exercising pressure on the state and society . 1 This definition of terrorism excludes both the use of force by insurgent–militant actors against military targets and the repressive use of violence by the state itself against its own or foreign civilians. This author

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Samantha Newbery

brief history of Britain’s presence in what became the colony of Aden. Britain was eventually forced to withdraw by the nationalist insurgency it faced there, granting Aden State, and the Federation of South Arabia to which it belonged, independence in 1967. Debates about to what extent, if at all, Britain might have brought about a different outcome continue. While the historian R. J. Gavin argues that

in Interrogation, intelligence and security
Abstract only
Calculating compassion in war
Rebecca Gill

period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. Here a hesitant NAS was joined once again by the Quakers, as well as by a number of temporary relief agencies directed and staffed by individuals familiar with the terrain and sympathetic, more often than not, to the cause of the insurgents. The advocacy of ‘moral interventionism’ in the

in Calculating compassion