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Practice and policy lessons from Northern Ireland and the Border Counties
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Transforming Conflict examines lessons learned from the Northern Ireland and Border Counties conflict transformation process through social and economic development and their consequent impacts and implications for practice and policymaking, with a range of functional recommendations produced for other regions emerging from and seeking to transform violent conflict. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the region’s transformation activity, largely amongst grassroots actors, enabled by a number of specific funding programmes, namely the International Fund for Ireland, Peace I and II and INTERREG I, II and IIIA. These programmes have facilitated conflict transformation over more than two decades, presenting a case ripe for lesson sharing. In focusing on the politics of the socioeconomic activities that underpinned the elite negotiations of the peace process, key theoretical transformation concepts are firstly explored, followed by an examination of the social and economic context of Northern Ireland and the Border Counties. The three programmes and their impacts are then assessed before considering what policy lessons can be learned and what recommendations can be made for practice. This is underpinned by a range of semi-structured interviews and the author’s own experience as a project promoter through these programmes in the Border Counties for more than a decade.

Sandra Buchanan

However, such efforts exist and are viable. In the Northern Ireland context, a number of external funding support programmes have concentrated their efforts on supporting the peace process since the mid 1980s through social and economic development, under the guise of the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) and the EU Peace Programmes (Peace I, II, and III), having contributed billions of euros to the region’s conflict t­ ransformation process. These programmes provide a case study for assessing the efforts of external funding of peace processes as they prompted

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Communities and collaboration along the Irish border
Caroline Creamer
and
Brendan O’Keeffe

their implementation. These, together with exchequer and other monies, enabled national policies to adapt to reflect the changing European agenda and, increasingly, local cum regional realities. In the case of cross-border and transnational cooperation, the International Fund for Ireland4 (IFI) and the Programme for Peace and Reconciliation (or PEACE programme), both dedicated to Northern Ireland and the southern border counties, aimed to stimulate socio-economic revival and growth. More recently, the EU-wide community initiative, INTERREG, has emphasised

in Spacing Ireland
The role of schools in Northern Ireland
Joanne Hughes
and
Caitlin Donnelly

(International Fund for Ireland and Atlantic Philanthropies) offered funding for the large-scale Sharing Education Programme (SEP) in Northern Ireland. Guided by reconciliation principles, a key aim of SEP is to facilitate sustained, curriculum-based contact. In this regard it seeks to bridge the gap between integrated schools, which are accessed by only a small minority of children, and

in Everyday life after the Irish conflict
Abstract only
Sandra Buchanan

A number of long-term conflict transformation funding programmes or tools have been operating in Northern Ireland and the Border Counties since 1986 under the guise of the International Fund for Ireland (IFI), the EU Special Support Programme for Peace and Reconciliation and the EU Programme for Peace and Reconciliation (Peace I, Peace II and Peace III), since 1994 and the

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
Sandra Buchanan

backgrounds, administrative structures and activities. International Fund for Ireland Article 10(a) of the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement signed by the British and Irish governments states that ‘the two governments shall co-operate to promote the economic and social development of those areas of both parts of Ireland which have suffered from the consequences of

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
Sandra Buchanan

extent of their effectiveness needs to be assessed in more detail. Some general observations will first be provided about each tool largely in terms of strengths and weaknesses. Each will then be assessed against the five criteria developed earlier in terms of impacts. The International Fund for Ireland – general observations Difficult beginnings

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
The honour of public service
Rosemary D. O’Neill

/10/2013 15:25 34 Rosemary D. O’Neill of choice in resolving the Troubles. On a trip to Northern Ireland in the early 1980s, Tip clearly saw the extent of unemployment in Northern Ireland. One of the Speaker’s last acts before his retirement was to provide for US government participation in the International Fund for Ireland, through which thousands of jobs were created. ‘The loyal opposition’ The nadir of his speakership came during the first year of the Reagan administration. The defection to Reagan of Southern Democrats enabled the Republicans to spend massive amounts

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Abstract only
Northern Ireland and International Relations theory
Timothy J. White

Irish Republican Army (IRA). Similar to his befriending of key Irish-American allies, John Hume developed connections with leaders in the European Union who also came to support the peace process. They did so through the economic assistance that they provided through the various EU Peace Programmes. In Chapter 10 in this volume, Buchanan discusses not only the peace funding that came from Europe but also other international funding that came through the International Fund for Ireland. Because it is impossible to know what would have developed without these external

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Abstract only
Mary McAleese

somehow, somewhere along the way, the peacemakers reached critical mass. People began to look more analytically at their own stories and listen more thoughtfully to the story of the other. They started to look for points of connection with the other rather than points of conflict. Cross-community initiatives, cross-border initiatives, helped by the International Fund for Ireland and European funds, opened people from opposing communities up to each other in ways that had not happened previously. Many key groups in civic society gave great example as they explored ways

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century