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Sandra Buchanan

However, such efforts exist and are viable. In the Northern Ireland context, a number of external funding support programmes have concentrated their efforts on supporting the peace process since the mid 1980s through social and economic development, under the guise of the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) and the EU Peace Programmes (Peace I, II, and III), having contributed billions of euros to the region’s conflict t­ ransformation process. These programmes provide a case study for assessing the efforts of external funding of peace processes as they prompted

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
The honour of public service
Rosemary D. O’Neill

/10/2013 15:25 34 Rosemary D. O’Neill of choice in resolving the Troubles. On a trip to Northern Ireland in the early 1980s, Tip clearly saw the extent of unemployment in Northern Ireland. One of the Speaker’s last acts before his retirement was to provide for US government participation in the International Fund for Ireland, through which thousands of jobs were created. ‘The loyal opposition’ The nadir of his speakership came during the first year of the Reagan administration. The defection to Reagan of Southern Democrats enabled the Republicans to spend massive amounts

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Abstract only
Mary McAleese

somehow, somewhere along the way, the peacemakers reached critical mass. People began to look more analytically at their own stories and listen more thoughtfully to the story of the other. They started to look for points of connection with the other rather than points of conflict. Cross-community initiatives, cross-border initiatives, helped by the International Fund for Ireland and European funds, opened people from opposing communities up to each other in ways that had not happened previously. Many key groups in civic society gave great example as they explored ways

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Abstract only
A force for peace in the world
Bertie Ahern

significant benefit. Some €1 billion has been committed through these programmes. In addition, the EU has committed over €200 million to the International Fund for Ireland which, as a result of the contributions received from its international donors, has done extraordinary work in promoting economic development and reconciliation. We hope when the PEACE II programme ends later this year that it can be followed by a further programme. We will be working closely with the British to try to assure this. The work is not yet finished. But the EU has shown that it is not only

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Abstract only
Northern Ireland and International Relations theory
Timothy J. White

Irish Republican Army (IRA). Similar to his befriending of key Irish-American allies, John Hume developed connections with leaders in the European Union who also came to support the peace process. They did so through the economic assistance that they provided through the various EU Peace Programmes. In Chapter 10 in this volume, Buchanan discusses not only the peace funding that came from Europe but also other international funding that came through the International Fund for Ireland. Because it is impossible to know what would have developed without these external

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Abstract only
Timothy J. White

International Fund for Ireland and the EU Peace Programmes (I, II, III), they have been responsible for a huge increase in grassroots-level involvement in the region’s conflict transformation process over the last three decades, prompting previously unforeseen levels of citizen empowerment and local ownership of the process. Consequently this has assisted in sustaining the peace process during its most challenging political periods. Despite relatively little in-depth research on their transformational contribution, these programmes provide a suitable context for assessing the

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
A constructivist realist critique of idealism and conservative realism
Paul Dixon

, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997). 16 This approach motivated the work of various civil society groups who promoted peace at the grassroots. They often used funds supplied by the European Union or the International Fund for Ireland to foster community based peace efforts. See Chapter 10 in this volume. 17 Dixon, ‘Paths to peace in Northern Ireland (I)’, 14–15. 18 Ibid., 10. McGrattan at the beginning of Chapter 12 cites Soderberg’s critique of Northern Ireland’s politicians. While

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
The political dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

Council of Ministers and the EP formally welcomed the Anglo-Irish Agreement in 1985 and the EC paid 15 million ECUs into the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) in 1989. The EP’s support for the Anglo-Irish Agreement was important in that it lent international support and approval to home-grown efforts at resolving the conflict. It also made it extremely difficult for either Britain or Ireland to renounce the pact unilaterally (Moxon-Browne 1992: 52). The EP’s welcome for the AngloIrish Agreement also helped to maintain the agreement against sustained and intense

in Northern Ireland and the European Union