idealism and realism. The discussion of Lockean contractarianism is not an effort to explore the history of the emergence of rights practices or of notions of human rights, although reference is made to that history. Nor is the considerable body of multilateral practice on human rights, particularly United Nations and internationallegalpractice, analysed in any detail.
We commonly grasp human rights issues in terms of a series of deeply entrenched oppositions, most stridently between assertions of universal, or absolute, values and forms of
The 2008 Italy–Libya Friendship Treaty and thereassembling of Fortress Europe
Chiara De Cesari
, as it were, to the public body of Qadhafi – history and memory
slipped from the radar of global public opinion. The very indistinct and misleading language of the Treaty (referring to chapter or suffering as opposed to crime)
de-materialized or, better, evacuated the utter materiality of dead Libyan bodies.
Reparations as internationallegalpractice
The Treaty consists of two key elements of reparation politics: a formal apology
and substantial material compensations. Yet as commentators have shown (Gazzini
2009), it represents a very peculiar form of reparation