picture of Cambyses, the Persian ruler, as a crazed despot.
Nevertheless, there is very little other evidence to set against it and, although
his narrative presents structural difficulties, most scholars accept his account in
The Persian Empire evolved around a small core state in the modern province
of Fars in southern Iran, referred to then as Parsa, from which is derived the
modern term ‘Persia’. Known also as the Achaemenid Empire, derived from
the founder of the ruling dynasty, Achaemenes, whose family members were
to rule the empire for two hundred
pyramids in Egypt (WHL 86, 1979), the Persepolis in Iran (WHL 114, 1979), the Taj Mahal in India (WHL 252, 1983), Machu Picchu in Peru (WHL 274, 1983), the Statue of Liberty in New York (WHL 307, 1984), Petra in Jordan (WHL 326, 1985), Great Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe (WHL 364, 1986), the Acropolis in Athens, Greece (WHL 404, 1987), the Great Wall in China (WHL 438, 1987), Uluru (Ayers Rock-Mount Olga) in Australia (WHL 447rev, 1987, 1994), and Jelling in Denmark (WHL 697, 1994, 2018).
A third concrete expression is the modernisation carried out before and/or after sites
most efficient force in the
ancient world up until then. The secret to its success was the large professionally
trained standing army, use of iron weapons, advanced engineering skills, effective
tactics and complete ruthlessness in the waging of warfare (Figure 2.1). The
large efficient military forces that Assyria was able to put into the field enabled
Assyria to extend its territories into Babylonia, western Iran, Anatolia and the
Levant, as well as controlling the major trade routes.
Assyria relied on international trade to sustain its economy and had a particular
.3 %) of UNESCO’s 195 member states (ich.unesco.org/en/convention; December 2019). The list includes, for instance, Vanuatu sand drawings (2008), Chinese calligraphy (2009), falconry (2010), the gastronomy of the French (2010), traditional carpet-weaving skills in Kashan in Iran (2010), and Fado singing in Portugal (2011). At the outset, in 2008, the list covered 90 instances of cultural heritage in 70 countries. The intangible cultural heritage items on the list have been divided into three categories: cultural heritage in urgent need of protection, the representative