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This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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The international congresses of architecture in Iran and the transnational search for identity
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

2 Canvassing a future: The international congresses of architecture in Iran and the transnational search for identity Introduction An important aspect of development is the flow of expertise and ideas that transforms localities. In relation to the built environment, the conduit for such flow in 1970s Iran was a series of five international congresses, organized between 1970 and 1976 by the Iranian government, of which three concerned architectural issues; the first two (Isfahan 1970, Persepolis 1974) addressed issues of development, impacts of advanced

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Engaging nostalgia
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

1 A vital past: Engaging nostalgia ‫ ما از آسیای جنوب شرقی آن موقع جلوتر‬.‫ایران در سال‌های دهه‌های چهل و پنجاه داشت جهش می‌کرد‬ ‫ حاال چرا؟ نمیدانم‬.‫ علت عدم موفقیت ما ته نظر من این است که ما شتاب تغییرات را تحمل نکردیم‬.‫بودیم‬ ‫… ما روشنفکران آن دوره هم پرتتودیم و تحلیل درستی از جایگاه خود در جامعه و جامعه ی خودمان در‬ ‫جهان نداشتیم … ما روشنفکران جایگاه خود را ندانستیم و جامعه را خراب کردیم … باید اعتراف کنم‬ 1 !‫شرمنده‌ام که نسل ما گند زد‬ Dariush Shayegan, Iranian Indophile philosopher Introduction In the Introduction, we argued that development

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Design as the mediator of development and heritage
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

Conclusion: Design as the mediator of development and heritage Introduction This book has explored some of the effects of development, which we have identified as a fundamental driver of historical change in late twentieth-century Iran. Throughout the twentieth century, but particularly during the second Pahlavi period, development constituted a raft of modernizing projects, displacements, and shifts in population composition, and changes in modes of production, all on a multitude of scales. Our point of departure has been that development unmoors traditions and

The Shahyad Arya-Mehr Tower
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

5 Forming a national image through public projects: The Shahyad Arya-Mehr Tower The monument of Shahyad Ariamehr is being built near Teheran to celebrate the 25th centenary of the foundation of the Iranian Empire, and of the Declaration of Human Rights by Cyrus the Great. As is fitting for such an occasion, it is a monument to the past – its inspiration clearly coming from traditional design. But it has another purpose concerned very much with today.1 I think one of the reasons that Persians feel so close to Shahyad Tower is that it is reminiscent of Ctesiphon

Representing the national capital
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

6 Tehran’s reluctant urban centre: Representing the national capital Introduction The design of a capital and its administrative centre are important expressions of national sovereign power and the country’s international standing in the global community of nations. In modern Iran, this was realized initially under Reza Shah with his rebuilding of central Tehran, and then attempted in the unrealized design for a new civic centre under his son, Mohammad Reza Shah. In this chapter we examine the evolution of this urban design proposal conceived for Abbas Abad

Housing and collective identity before 1979
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

3 Heritage in the everyday: Housing and collective identity before 1979 Introduction One of the most tangible cases where heritage, place, and collective identity are construed and constructed on an everyday basis is in the design of collective housing. In this chapter we examine a particular case of engagement with the past through the architectural design of group housing, Shushtar Now (New Shushtar) by Kamran Diba, a project that arose out of the 1974 Persepolis congress as an exemplary model for future mass housing in Iran. Such mass housing fulfilled both

The formation of a collective imagination
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

Introduction Development, architecture, and heritage: The formation of a collective imagination This book examines the relationship between development, architecture, and the (re)production of the past through architectural design in Iran, from the early 1970s to the 1990s. It will show that this relationship is entangled in larger historico-cultural processes, many of which originated from outside Iran in European Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment intellectual discourses. This relationship between architectural design and the production of the past in the

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Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

Iranian Academies complex in Tehran (above) (2013); Jila Norouzi and Naqsh-e Jahan Pars architects, Sacred Defence Museum and Art Lake (2013), partial view of the Art Lake and its stepped garden adjacent and parallel to the museum structure (below). Plate 7  Entry to the Sacred Defence Museum marking the graves of seven unknown martyrs (top-left) (view from the Taleqani Park, 2017); Parviz Moayyed-Ahd and others, the Grand Mosalla (2017), a colonnade adjacent to the main courtyard (top-right) (note how both edifices utilize the same symbolic arches also used in the