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The media and international intervention
Author: Philip Hammond

The first major post-Cold War conflict, the 1991 Gulf war, indicated how much had already changed. Saddam Hussein had enjoyed Western support in Iraq's war against Iran in the 1980s, but was abruptly cast as the 'new Hitler' after his invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. This book is about how the media have interpreted conflict and international intervention in the years after the Cold War. By comparing press coverage of a number of different wars and crises, it seeks to establish which have been the dominant themes in explaining the post-Cold War international order and to discover how far the patterns established prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have subsequently changed. The key concern is with the legitimacy of Western intervention: the aim is to investigate the extent to which Western military action is represented in news reporting as justifiable and necessary. The book presents a study that looks at UK press coverage of six conflicts and the international response to them: two instances of 'humanitarian military intervention' (Somalia and Kosovo); two cases in which the international community was criticised for not intervening (Bosnia and Rwanda); and two post-9/11 interventions (Afghanistan and Iraq). There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. Operation Restore Hope was the first major instance of post-Cold War humanitarian military intervention, following the precedent set by the establishment of 'safe havens' for Iraqi Kurds and other minorities at the end of the 1991 Gulf war.

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Sam Rohdie

origini’, ‘The Voyage’ / ‘Il viaggio’, ‘Across Europe’ / ‘Attraverso l’Europa’. ‘Le origini’ takes place in Iran. It begins with Fire, the burning off of natural gas as a by-product of oil drilling. The burning off is at the top of towers in a mountainous terrain. The gas is set alight by gun-flares at night, like a pistol shot followed by a mini explosion at ignition. The film opens with the gas burned off, a coup de théâtre. The burning is part of the extraction process, but the visual effect seems a fantasy like the story of Aladdin and his magic lamp in One Thousand

in Film modernism
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Performing ‘out- of- placeness’ in the UK and Europe
Stephen Greer

136 Queer exceptions European cosmopolitanism and mobility. Recalling Simmel’s emphasis on the synthesis of proximity and distance within the figure of the stranger –​and mindful of Ahmed’s observation of the ways in which the stranger may become fetishised –​I consider Nassim Soleimanpour’s White Rabbit, Red Rabbit (2010), a work created when the playwright was unable to leave Iran and of which each performance requires a new, unrehearsed actor to act as Soleimanpour’s surrogate. While critical reception of the work has emphasised its status as a creative

in Queer exceptions
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Alan Rosenthal

1989, where one lone man confronted a squadron of Chinese tanks. Antony asks ‘Who was he? What accounts for his actions?’ Like Princess the story opens up to discuss the suppression of history. This battle against an oppressive regime was followed by a similar expose in 2010 in For Neda, which may be Antony’s saddest and most moving film. As the world came to know, Neda Agha-Soltan was shot by a sniper while protesting over Iran’s rigged elections, but had her Inspiration tragic death captured on multiple cell phones. Quickly she became a key symbol of protest

in The documentary diaries
Paul Henley

expanded her range, collaborating with the Cambridge-trained Iranian legal anthropologist Ziba Mir-Hosseini to make Divorce Iranian Style , a feature-length film produced for Channel 4 that followed the struggles of three women to secure their rights in an Iranian divorce court ( figure 13.3 , left). In order to make this film, which was shot over a period of a month, the all-women crew and Mir-Hosseini meticulously observed Islamic dress codes whenever they were filming in the court. 14

in Beyond observation
Adapting the metaphor of psychopathology to look back at the mad, monstrous 80s
Ruth Goldberg

even they react in horror to the larger pathology of American culture, the films also force us to position ourselves in relation to the American cultural landscape, as if it were an additional character in these films, another monster on the loose. It is interesting to note that in both Donnie Darko and American Psycho this positioning happens in relation to historical footage of the Iran

in Monstrous adaptations
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Alan Rosenthal

. This means a good story, conflict, characters that interest us, scenes that touch us and move us, and a conclusion and closure. Occasionally you strike lucky and can sense many of these things before you begin your film. In Fahimeh’s Story, this is exactly what happened to director Faramarz K-Rahber and his line producer Axel Grigor. Before shooting, both men met a vivacious forty-seven-year-old Iranian immigrant to Australia called Fahimeh. Fahimeh had migrated to Australia with her children after an unhappy arranged marriage to a husband whom she could not divorce

in The documentary diaries
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Alison Smith

) Daguerréotypes 1974–5, 80 min., col. Production: Ciné-Tamaris, INA, ZDF Camera: Nurith Aviv, William Lubtchansky Editing: Gordon Swire Sound: Antoine Bonfanti, Jean-François Auger With the participation of the inhabitants of the rue Daguerre and Mystag Réponse de femmes 1975, 8 min., col. Production: Ciné-Tamaris, Antenne 2 Executive producers: Sylvie Genevoix, Michel Honorin Camera: Jacques Reiss, Michel Thiriet Sound: Bernard Bleicher Editing: Marie Castro Plaisir d’amour en Iran 1976, 6 min., col. Production: Ciné-Tamaris Camera

in Agnès Varda
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Alison Smith

successful protest singer and performance artist, always preoccupied with women’s problems. After a career setback she briefly moves to Iran with her Iranian boyfriend Darius, gets married there but rejects the repressive traditions which even the apparently liberated Darius drifts back to, and returns to France and to her old life, pregnant with her second child but self-sufficient. Compared with L’Opéra-Mouffe, Cléo and

in Agnès Varda
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Scott Wilson

war between the victorious Mujahideen saw the emergence of the hard line Islamicist regime of the Taliban. The Ayatollah Khomeini, already in power after the Iranian revolution of 1979, named America the Great Satan, for his own reasons, on 5 November of that year. The USSR entered Afghanistan a month later, on Christmas day, at the request of the imperilled Marxist government that had became further threatened by the proximity of Iran and Islamic militancy. These were the events that determined the end of the cold war and what followed. The Iranian reference to

in Great Satan’s rage