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Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Stanley R. Sloan

Syria against Syrian Kurds, US allies against ISIL, have likely already frozen prospects for further progress toward EU membership. Meanwhile, Ankara has actively pursued closer working relationships with Russia and Islamic nations, including Iran. Frustrations with the stalled EU negotiations have served as one of the motivations – or excuses – for Erdoğan to pursue closer ties with Russia, despite recent serious tensions with Moscow. Visits to Ankara by the chiefs of the Iranian and Russian general staffs indicate that they have overcome tensions caused by Turkey

in Transatlantic traumas
Abstract only
Chinese and Greek drug smugglers
Stephen Snelders

. 109 The police also received more and more detailed information about the smuggling of Turkish and Iranian opium from Marseilles to the Netherlands, decades before the infamous ‘French Connection’ transporting heroin from Asia to the United States. 110 Other key transit hubs on the opium routes were the ports of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. In 1927 the British representative in the League of Nations Opium Advisory Committee identified these ports as central

in Drug smuggler nation
Abstract only
The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Shohei Sato

their own societies, while at the same time they would have to defend themselves from potential threats from inside or outside their countries. In turn, regional powers like Iran and Saudi Arabia might capitalise upon this opportunity to increase their influence, while the US would need to ensure that independence would not become another source of turmoil, as was happening in Vietnam. In this contested

in Britain and the formation of the Gulf States
Robin Derricourt

the Avesta. An estimate from 2012 counted about 120,000 members of Zoroastrian communities in the modern world.2 The largest group are the 60,000 Parsis in India, the majority in Mumbai. The name ‘Parsi’ reflects their historic origins in Persia, where recent Iranian censuses suggest a total of 25,000 remain. An estimated 20,000 Zoroastrians live in North America and 5,000 in Britain. As in all religious movements, the beliefs, religious practices and traditions of origin in Mazdaism and Zoroastrianism have varied, evolved and changed over the very many centuries

in Creating God
Bussing, race and urban space, 1960s–80s
Author: Olivier Esteves

In 1960–62, a large number of white autochthonous parents in Southall became very concerned that the sudden influx of largely non-Anglophone Indian immigrant children in local schools would hold back their children’s education. It was primarily to placate such fears that ‘dispersal’ (or ‘bussing’) was introduced in areas such as Southall and Bradford, as well as to promote the integration of mostly Asian children. It consisted in sending busloads of immigrant children to predominantly white suburban schools, in an effort to ‘spread the burden’. This form of social engineering went on until the early 1980s. This book, by mobilising local and national archival material as well as interviews with formerly bussed pupils in the 1960s and 1970s, reveals the extent to which dispersal was a flawed policy, mostly because thousands of Asian pupils were faced with racist bullying on the playgrounds of Ealing, Bradford, etc. It also investigates the debate around dispersal and the integration of immigrant children, e.g. by analysing the way some Local Education Authorities (Birmingham, London) refused to introduce bussing. It studies the various forms that dispersal took in the dozen or so LEAs where it operated. Finally, it studies local mobilisations against dispersal by ethnic associations and individuals. It provides an analysis of debates around ‘ghetto schools’, ‘integration’, ‘separation’, ‘segregation’ where quite often the US serves as a cognitive map to make sense of the English situation.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Shohei Sato

. These points will be explored with a focus on the 1970s. This is partly because most government sources of the 1980s onwards remain classified. Another consideration is that the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1978/79 fundamentally altered the regional dynamics of the Persian Gulf; something that deserves to be examined in a separate study. Of the various events that took place in the 1970s, four will be closely

in Britain and the formation of the Gulf States