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Reassessed
Tracey Nicholls

discussion of Foucault’s attempt to think beyond secular politics, to think about spirituality as a site – or perhaps, as a constitutive attitude? – for revolutionary solidarity, emphasises the centrality of Iran’s theocratic revolution within Foucault’s later political thought, a connection they noted is the central focus of Janet Afary and Kevin B

in Foucault’s theatres
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
John Kinsella

critiquing my own privileged position as consumer and ‘coloniser’ of place. To work with another poet, as I have with Iranian-Australian Ali Alizadeh, translating poetry from a culture I have largely been ‘outside’, is a liberating experience that co-polysituates both parties, and the texts being translated (though maybe not the poets … however, we had some feedback that suggested a sense of sharing that may have been polysituated for them, too). Further on in this section, I explore this collaboration and also look at translating work from a different period and culture

in Polysituatedness
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Author: Rachael Gilmour

At a time when monolingualist claims for the importance of ‘speaking English’ to the national order continue louder than ever, even as language diversity is increasingly part of contemporary British life, literature becomes a space to consider the terms of linguistic belonging. Bad English examines writers including Tom Leonard, James Kelman, Suhayl Saadi, Raman Mundair, Daljit Nagra, Xiaolu Guo, Leila Aboulela, Brian Chikwava, and Caroline Bergvall, who engage multilingually, experimentally, playfully, and ambivalently with English’s power. Considering their invented vernaculars and mixed idioms, their dramatised scenes of languaging – languages learned or lost, acts of translation, scenes of speaking, the exposure and racialised visibility of accent – it argues for a growing field of contemporary literature in Britain pre-eminently concerned with language’s power dynamics, its aesthetic potentialities, and its prosthetic strangeness. Drawing on insights from applied linguistics and translation studies as well as literary scholarship, Bad English explores contemporary arguments about language in Britain – in debates about citizenship or education, in the media or on Twitter, in Home Office policy and asylum legislation – as well as the ways they are taken up in literature. It uncovers both an antagonistic and a productive interplay between language politics and literary form, tracing writers’ articulation of linguistic alienation and ambivalence, as well as the productivity and making-new of radical language practices. Doing so, it refutes the view that language difference and language politics are somehow irrelevant to contemporary Britain and instead argues for their constitutive centrality to the work of novelists and poets whose inside/outside relationship to English in its institutionalised forms is the generative force of their writing.

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American horror comics as Cold War commentary and critique

Printing Terror places horror comics of the mid-twentieth century in dialogue with the anxieties of their age. It rejects the narrative of horror comics as inherently and necessarily subversive and explores, instead, the ways in which these texts manifest white male fears over America’s changing sociological landscape. It examines two eras: the pre-CCA period of the 1940s and 1950s, and the post-CCA era to 1975. The authors examine each of these periods through the lenses of war, gender, and race, demonstrating that horror comics are centred upon white male victimhood and the monstrosity of the gendered and/or racialised other. It is of interest to scholars of horror, comics studies, and American history. It is suitably accessible to be used in undergraduate classes.

Andrew Teverson

book has nothing to do with what I wrote’. 38 The worst was yet to come, however, when the Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran issued a fatwa (a decree) that demanded the execution of Rushdie and his publishers. The fatwa was read on Radio Tehran on Valentine’s Day 1989. ‘In the name of God Almighty’, Khomeini declared: I would like to inform all the intrepid Muslims in the world that the author of the book entitled The Satanic Verses , which has been compiled, printed and published in opposition to Islam, the Prophet and the Koran, as well as

in Salman Rushdie
Open Access (free)
Peter Morey

Zarathustra (also known as Zoroaster), who probably came from the north eastern region of modern day Iran. Very little is known about Zarathustra himself. Other than the seventeen Gathas or hymns attributed to him, nothing survives to offer a direct link between modern-day Zoroastrians and their prophet. Even dating Zarathustra and his teachings proves difficult. Several western scholars of Zoroastrianism have estimated that Zarathustra was active some time around the fifth or sixth centuries before Christ. However, there is a tradition among the Parsis that suggests that

in Rohinton Mistry
Persia, masculinity, and conversion in early seventeenth-century travel writing and drama
Chloë Houston

under the Safavid dynasty, see Roger Savory, Iran under the Safavids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980 ); Peter Jackson and Laurence Lockhart (eds), The Cambridge history of Iran: volume 6: the Timurid and Safavid periods (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986

in Conversions
Verbatim practice in a sceptical age
Liz Tomlin

comments that ‘since “nobody believes in objectivity any more”, this opening out of the process serves as a new source of authority’ (2000: 50), highlighting the danger that too much self-conscious emphasis on a failed personal process might further silence the already-marginalised voices we are still not permitted to hear (2000: 50). This danger was to be fully realised in Paper Bird’s subsequent production, Others (2010),3 which was ‘based on a six-month exchange of letters and emails with a prisoner, a celebrity and an Iranian artist’, in order to engage with women

in Acts and apparitions
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Queering Islam and micropolitical disorientation
Alberto Fernández Carbajal

West, and they remain a contentious issue in many Muslim-majority countries, where levels of tolerance can vary between clandestine social acceptance and exemplary state punishment. Whereas homosexuality has been decriminalised in places such as Turkey and Indonesia – while in India it has been decriminalised, recriminalised, and decriminalised once again – stepping out of line with normative sexualities can lead many Muslims to face imprisonment or even the death penalty, in countries such as Malaysia, Nigeria, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (Habib, 2010 ). Whether these

in Queer Muslim diasporas in contemporary literature and film