owner was a person of note; yet, prior to this workshop, the inscription on the blade had never been translated. Would it substantiate a direct link to Ranjit Singh? High-resolution images of the inscription were sent out to experts recommended by the workshop and the view which emerged was that the sword carried a dedication to Shah ‘Abbas of Iran as well as the purported signature of a notable Iranian swordsmith, Asad Allah Isfahani, active 200 years before. At first sight, this surely lent credence to the otherwise questionable contention that this one sword among
expansion of oil refining came the increasing use of fractions from oil by chemical firms. ICI was a producer of aviation fuel itself during the war and entered into agreements with petroleum companies afterwards. The firm’s move away from molasses was complete in 1952 when it opened an oil cracking plant at the enormous ICI site at Wilton on Teesside, using petroleum supplied by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. 39 Anglo-Iranian also formed the company British Petroleum Chemicals with DCL in 1947. DCL had been the biggest producer of alcohol for the chemical industry in
executed following a coup in 1958. The Qajar dynasty of Persia (Iran) for long had managed to keep the imperialists at bay, but after the Second World War, the alignment of the Pahlavi dynasty (which had usurped the throne in the 1920s) with the West proved its downfall; the end of the monarchy followed an Islamist revolution in 1979. Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states, by contrast, represent one of the largest concentrations of monarchies – often absolutist ones – in today’s world. 42 The regions of North Africa and the Middle East thus provide comparative case
fact all eight people on board the de Havilland DH 34 (G-EBBY) were killed when it crashed shortly after taking off from Croydon on 24 December 1924; seven people died when the Handley Page W.10 City of Ottawa (G-EBMT) crashed in the English Channel on 17 June 1929; and three people lost their lives when the City of Jerusalem , a de Havilland DH 66 Hercules (G-EBMZ), caught fire after crashing at Jask in Iran, on 6 September 1929.
Overall these accounts are representative of the challenges presented by the weather and terrain, and while their authors typically
protectorate in the Himalayas. John. W. Thomson-Glover (consul-general 1933–6) served prior to his appointment as a Joint Commissioner for Leh and Political Agent for Dir and Chitral in the mountainous regions of northern Indian. The last consul-general, Eric Shipton (1940–2, 1946–8) did not serve as a Political Officer before his first appointment, but spent ten years as an experienced traveller in the Himalayas. Between his two posts in Kashgar, Shipton spent a short time as a consular official in Iran (1943–4). These postings provided consuls-general with a range of
's nationalisation of the Iranian Oil Company, and French cartoonists would return to this trope in their post-Suez cartoons (see below).
National personifications, such as the British John Bull, or the French Marianne, also made frequent appearances in the Suez cartoons. Al-Masri Effendi , a respectable middle-class man wearing a tarboosh (fez) and suit, represented Egypt in the cartoons of the interwar period. Zdafee demonstrates in Chapter 8 that national caricatures such as al-Masri Effendi not only reflected the reading public's image of itself but were
. Rotary's own networks were not only much broader than those of the WI, individual Rotarians were also much more likely to visit clubs in other countries. A charitable scheme to drive a lorry of medical supplies 7,600 miles from Whitney Rotary Club to the Shining Hospital at Pokhra in Nepal gives some sense of this breadth: on their way to Nepal, the lorry and its drivers stopped to receive hospitality and assistance from Rotary Clubs in Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. 64 As this ambitious journey
their own societies, while at the same time they would have to defend
themselves from potential threats from inside or outside their
countries. In turn, regional powers like Iran and Saudi Arabia might
capitalise upon this opportunity to increase their influence, while the
US would need to ensure that independence would not become another
source of turmoil, as was happening in Vietnam. In this contested
These points will be explored with a focus on the 1970s.
This is partly because most government sources of the 1980s onwards
remain classified. Another consideration is that the Islamic Revolution
in Iran in 1978/79 fundamentally altered the regional dynamics of the
Persian Gulf; something that deserves to be examined in a separate study. Of the
various events that took place in the 1970s, four will be closely
This chapter starts by introducing a new British government, and then
examines the July negotiations in detail, before going on to the final
days of the British withdrawal from the Gulf.
The Conservative volte-face
In the spring of 1970, whilst
Iran’s renouncing of its claim over the ‘14th
province’ was cheered on the streets of Bahrain, the British
public was preparing for a