US military forces. 56 The economic sanctions placed on Iraq at the
end of the war have had particularly bad effects on
Iraqiwomen. 57 In other
contexts, economic globalisation and the restructuring policies of the
international monetary institutions may be implicated in the creation of
security crises. 58 The
premise of both security traditionalists and progressives, that
opportunity to gain freedoms and to enjoy new
Women’s active participation in nationalist and revolutionary
struggles has sometimes facilitated their subsequent assertion of
political and social rights. 55 For example, the IraqiWomen’s
Federation played an important role during the Iran–Iraq war in
helping Iraqiwomen to exercise their roles in all walks of life and
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
Figures sourced from: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/issues/women/wom
5 Jacqueline Siapno (2008) has reported that gender sensitivity within PNTL remains
poor, particularly noting sexual harassment within PNTL and the existence of
‘glass ceilings’ for women within Timor-Leste’s security sector.
Al-Ali, N. and N. Pratt. 2009. “The United States, the IraqiWomen’s Diaspora and
Women’s ‘Empowerment’ in Iraq.” In Women and War in the Middle East, edited
by N. Al-Ali and N. Pratt, 65–98. New York: Zed Books.
Alves, D. 2010. “Domingas Micato