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Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.

A brief survey
Éamonn Ó Ciardha

8 Irish-language sources for Irish Catholic identity since the early modern period: a brief survey Éamonn Ó Ciardha The five decades after the ‘Flight of the Earls’ (1607) witnessed a marked decline in the fortunes of the professional learned classes of poets, scribes, brehons, genealogists and chroniclers. Although the wholesale destruction of manuscripts and the carelessness of subsequent generations have deprived us of much of their œuvre, nearly six thousand manuscripts (many of which remain unedited and untranslated) have survived the ravages of time to

in Irish Catholic identities
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Oliver P. Rafferty

Ireland, are a sense of ‘Irishness’ often conceived in broad terms and subject to fluctuating understanding of what constitutes such an identity, and adherence to the Catholic faith. The influence, authority and role of the Catholic Church in shaping Irish Catholic consciousness are, therefore, paramount as a template for understanding Ireland and the Irish historically. Among the issues raised is the seminal question: does it make sense to think in terms of a clear and distinct identity over time, and is this sense of identity linked 2 Irish Catholic identities

in Irish Catholic identities
Fergal Casey

radicalism arguably constitutes a ‘greening’ – the application to England of insights gleaned from his engagement with Ireland. His pamphlet Ireland: A Letter to Earl Grey (1868) adopted politically radical ideas in response to Irish conditions, and this essay will offer a preliminary sketch of how in the service of a new Irish Catholic identity his economics radicalised, beginning with the pamphlet The Dignity and Rights of Labour (1874). His activism in the 1880s such as his mediation in the dock strike and his letters to The Times went side by side with growing

in Irish Catholic identities
Louise Fuller

expressions of Catholic and Irish identity state were also very concerned to further the aim of restoring the Irish language and culture to its rightful position and they did this chiefly by means of the education system. Church and political interests had the same vision of the purity and distinctiveness of Irish culture and were equally concerned to restore, maintain and protect what was seen as the unique Irish Catholic identity from what were perceived to be alien influences emanating from abroad. Independence made it possible to copper-fasten Catholic identity and

in Irish Catholic identities
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Irish diaspora studies and women: theories, concepts and new perspectives
D. A. J. MacPherson
Mary J. Hickman

Scotland, demonstrating women’s role in the construction of Irish diasporic identities in these different locations, connecting the global and the local. From her analysis of nineteenth-century convent archives, Kehoe argues that, while Irish nuns played a significant role in the promotion of an Irish-Catholic identity in Toronto, those in Scotland were marginalised and under-represented within the Scottish church. It highlights variations in diasporic experiences and reveals the importance of local circumstances and preoccupations in determining the extent to which the

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
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Bryce Evans

Totalitarian?’, Irish Monthly, 68 (1940), 1–9. Ryan, ‘Is Portugal Totalitarian?’, 1–9. Whyte, Church and State, 160. Susannah Riordan, “The Unpopular Front’: The Catholic Revival and Irish Catholic Identity, 1932–48’ (unpublished M.A. thesis, UCD, 1990), 157. Wilfred Parsons, ‘The Function of Government in Industry’, Irish Monthly, 72, 1944, 148–161. Lucey, ‘Spending of the Living Wage’, 143. Wills, Neutral Island, 31. Leitrim Observer, 12 April 1942. See, for instance, Anglo-Celt, 17 February 1945. See O’Leary, Vocationalism. ‘Vigilans’, ‘As I See It’, Christus Rex, 1 (1947

in Ireland during the Second World War
Mary J. Hickman

to 1968 this might have been a reasonable expectation but even then it did not take account of the particular history of the Irish in Britain. In general the lack of public space for or recognition of, in particular, a working-class Irish-Catholic identity ensured local parades existed but were of different longevity and patchily distributed across the country.15 Further, the enthusiasm for parades ebbed and flowed amongst Irish communities themselves. At the time that most of the current second generation were young, in the 1970s and 1980s, there were fewer

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
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The story of a voice
Emer Nolan

with O’Connor’s biography, this doe-eyed child looking shyly at the camera, her fingertips pressed together in a gauche attempt at a prayerful pose, represents a disturbing image of Irish Catholic identity. O’Connor had already associated child abuse with Black historical experience when she sang a version of Marley’s ‘War’, substituting the words ‘child abuse’ for ‘racism’ in several of the lines. This was just before she ripped up the picture of the Pope. She reprises ‘War’ on the final track on Throw down your arms. Yet what relationship exists between O

in Five Irish women
Jarlath Killeen

Social History , 10 (1983), 60–88 and Religion, Law and Power: The Making of Protestant Ireland, 1660–1760 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), 263–313; Charles Ivar McGrath, ‘Securing the Protestant interest: the origins and purpose of the Penal Laws of 1695’, Irish Historical Studies , 30 (1996–7), 25–46; Thomas Bartlett, ‘The Penal Laws against Irish Catholics: Were They too Good for Them?’, in Irish Catholic Identities , ed. Oliver J. Rafferty (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013), 154

in Imagining the Irish child