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Victoria L. McAlister

Ireland. Accompanying this process, the influence of royal government from Dublin waned, particularly from the fourteenth century. Edward Bruce landed at Larne in the south of County Antrim in 1315, and the ensuing Bruce Wars lasted until his death in 1318; the Black Death killed at least one-third of the population, if not more, causing further untold numbers to relocate to better social and agricultural conditions elsewhere in Ireland (Gwynn, 1935 ). Outside of the Anglo-Irish centres, Ireland was dominated by Gaelic-Irish culture – that is, the native Irish

in The Irish tower house
Lifeblood of the tower house
Victoria L. McAlister

reflected, too, in that some of these creaghts were led by nobles of Anglo-Irish as well as Gaelic-Irish lineage ( ibid .). Hampering our understanding of transhumance is the pronounced bias within the contemporary evidence, authored by English observers who viewed the practice as reflective of innate barbarism (Gardiner, 2012 ). Regardless of such bias, scholars now confidently assert that pastoral agriculture was intrinsic to Gaelic-Irish culture. But it was not limited to Gaelic-Irish areas. Pastoralism increased following English

in The Irish tower house