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Travellers in the text

This book traces a number of common themes relating to the representation of Irish Travellers in Irish popular tradition and how these themes have impacted on Ireland's collective imagination. A particular focus of the book is on the exploration of the Traveller as ‘Other’, an ‘Other’ who is perceived as both inside and outside Ireland's collective ideation. Frequently constructed as a group whose cultural tenets are in a dichotomous opposition to those of the ‘settled’ community, the book demonstrates the ambivalence and complexity of the Irish Traveller ‘Other’ in the context of a European postcolonial country. Not only have the construction and representation of Travellers always been less stable and ‘fixed’ than previously supposed, these images have been acted upon and changed by both the Traveller and non-Traveller communities as the situation has demanded. Drawing primarily on little-explored Irish language sources, the book demonstrates the fluidity of what is often assumed as reified or ‘fixed’. As evidenced in Irish-language cultural sources, the image of the Traveller is inextricably linked with the very concept of Irish identity itself. They are simultaneously the same and ‘Other’, and frequently function as exemplars of the hegemony of native Irish culture as set against colonial traditions.

Irish Travellers and the Questionnaire
Mícheál Ó hAodha

authentication rooted in a pre-colonial, prelapsarian past that was equally essentialist. I argue here that this ‘new’ Irish essentialism which accompanied the discourse of the emergent nation-state employed an ideological framework of ‘control’ or ‘representation’ that was quite similar to that which had accompanied British imperialism. This new essentialism was reductive by nature and consequently it obscured the existence of heterogeneity in Irish culture including subaltern groups such as Irish Travellers. As a marginalised and stigmatised group within Irish society

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Food and wine as cultural signifiers
Brian Murphy

, inextricably linked to economics in that it operates in the public sphere exclusively as a business. Restaurants, hotels, bars and wine stores all exist with profit as their ultimate motivator. In fact, Peillon discusses the tensions that exist between culture and economic capital in Ireland and suggests that the inimical relationship between the two is not something new in this country (Peillon 2002, pp. 40–41). He cites Hutchinson and Kane, both of whom intimate that, in various spheres of 1970s Ireland, culture was seen to impede economic progress in some way. But it is

in From prosperity to austerity
Lucy Michael

Opinion columns and pseudo-scientific articles exploring immigration and integration are now the primary channels for overt racism in the Irish media, and their proliferation prompts a necessary exploration of their established form and growing influence. A range of columnists regularly vilify Muslims, Roma and Travellers, particularly drawing on ideas of barbarism, cultural genocide and population control, and defiantly testing the legal limits of incitement to hatred. Constructions of Irish culture as monolithic in the face of an immigration regime which imports failed multiculturalism and racism necessarily position migrants as continuing outsiders and the creators of their own exclusion. Clear connections can be made between racist discourses in Irish media and violence against migrants and ethnic minorities. This chapter explores how Irish media outlets are facilitating and promoting the normalisation of racist discourses, and the implications of this for the construction of debates which take seriously the challenges of integration in practice and in the context of growing anti-immigrant racism.

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
The Catholic Church during the Celtic Tiger Years
Eamon Maher

boardrooms. It was about the body, not the body politic. Masturbation was a much more serious sin than tax evasion. In a mindset where homosexuality was a much worse sin than cooking the books, it was okay to be bent as long as you were straight. (O’Toole 2009, p. 183) As Irish culture became fixated on the pursuit of material wealth at all costs, there was a move away from the religious ‘habitus’ that had held sway for a number of centuries. In the words of the sociologist Tom Inglis, Ireland went from a culture of self-­denial to one of self-­indulgence (Inglis 2006, pp

in From prosperity to austerity
Contested terrains
Mícheál Ó hAodha

07 Insubordinate Irish 091-102 7 13/6/11 14:27 Page 91 Narrative and the Irish imaginary: Contested terrains Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold (The Second Coming – W. B. Yeats) Traditionally post-colonialism has read Irish culture through its inherited dichotomy of colonised/coloniser and empowered/disempowered thereby replicating imperialist power structures of old; the reading of the two primary strands within the representative discourse explored here points rather to the atypicality, the nomadic qualities, of Ireland’s postcolonial

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Abstract only
Ian Miller

critiques of Irish culture made by political economists. Political economists foresaw the dislodgment of the ubiquitously popular potato as a key to effecting national transformation. Unusually, the Famine prompted state bodies to attempt to intervene. Members of the Scientific Commission and the Central Board of Health held deep faith in their medico-scientific – specifically nutritional – understandings of what modes of production and consumption ought to replace a monotonous mono-crop culture. However, between 1845 and 1847, nutritional knowledge became entangled with

in Reforming food in post-Famine Ireland
Ben Tonra

inspiration and socio-economic model – towards the New World rather than the old, and emphasising the liberal freedoms, individual rights and responsibilities that are seen to characterise it. The implications of this narrative for Irish foreign policy underline key contemporary policy debates. This narrative, in part, rests upon a reappraisal of Irish historiography that is well established and ongoing. That reappraisal rescues the Imperial and British elements to Irish culture, history and society that were deliberately excised by the succeeding narrative of the Irish

in Global citizen and European Republic
Abstract only
Eamon Maher and Eugene O’Brien

faulty foundations and tended to benefit the rich more than the poor. Kirby, Gibbons and Cronin produced a compelling critique of what they viewed as the dominant neo-­ liberal approach to economics that encouraged people to believe that Ireland had never had it so good, that the country had a rosy future and that full employment and increased wealth would continue. Reinventing Ireland: Culture, Society and the Global Economy (2002) remains one of the best interrogations of the comfortable consensus that developed between government, the media and business interests

in From prosperity to austerity
Abstract only
Jérôme aan de Wiel

turn, what did Neues Deutschland, Neue Zeit, Berliner Zeitung and the Weltbühne think of Irish culture and what attitude did they adopt towards Bloody Sunday in (London)Derry in 1972 and the hunger strikes in Northern Ireland in the early 1980s? The East German television sent journalists to report not only on the conflict in Northern Ireland but also on the ­socio-economic conditions in Ireland. Was it all propaganda? A handful of Irish idealists settled in the GDR and attention is paid to their activities. The activities of the Ireland–GDR Friendship Society are

in East German intelligence and Ireland, 1949–90