Ireland. Accompanying this process, the influence of royal government from Dublin waned, particularly from the fourteenth century. Edward Bruce landed at Larne in the south of County Antrim in 1315, and the ensuing Bruce Wars lasted until his death in 1318; the Black Death killed at least one-third of the population, if not more, causing further untold numbers to relocate to better social and agricultural conditions elsewhere in Ireland (Gwynn, 1935 ). Outside of the Anglo-Irish centres, Ireland was dominated by Gaelic-Irishculture – that is, the native Irish
reflected, too, in that some of these creaghts were led by nobles of Anglo-Irish as well as Gaelic-Irish lineage ( ibid .).
Hampering our understanding of transhumance is the pronounced bias within the contemporary evidence, authored by English observers who viewed the practice as reflective of innate barbarism (Gardiner, 2012 ). Regardless of such bias, scholars now confidently assert that pastoral agriculture was intrinsic to Gaelic-Irishculture. But it was not limited to Gaelic-Irish areas. Pastoralism increased following English
Through a discussion of spatial practice in Irish verbal and literary culture, the Conclusion paints an encompassing picture of the resilience and ubiquity of circling spatial practice in Irish culture. While this practice, literary and cultural, is rooted in the Middle Ages, it is nonetheless still prevalent and globally influential in contemporary literary culture, as evidenced by Seamus Heaney’s poetry. The conclusion emphasizes the circling poetical device of dúnad, but also considers various visual images of circling spatial schemes, including illuminated insular gospels, mazes or labyrinths, plans of Jerusalem holy structures, maps and depictions of the cosmos, as well as schemes of the ogam alphabet. Spatial practice, and circling movements through material and imaginative landscapes, are a driving force in diverse forms of Irish cultural production.
culture, as well as Irishculture, Roman
culture, the Normans, as well as the Jewish communities who
arrived after the Norman Conquest only to be expelled 200 years
later, among many other arrivals.11 The political meaning of the
Hugin is perhaps most clearly expressed when it is situated alongside the arrival of another vessel that docked in Tilbury, Essex, the
year before: HMT Empire Windrush, which brought one of the
first large groups of West Indian migrants to the UK. The history
of the Hugin is another example of medievalist double consciousness: an event that