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The EU’s odd couple
Tom Gallagher

state system ... [would] mean the end of the French Republic, and thus of France’. 89 The prospect of a ‘strategic bargain’ between France and Germany on political union which was up for discussion in a forthcoming inter-governmental conference was thus diminished. 90 It was Jacques Chirac who in 1995 became France’s President, someone who in the late 1970s had exclaimed against a ‘Europe which is dominated by Germano-American interests’. 91 Later, he was willing to pay lip-service to pro-EU orthodoxy – but only up to a point. Prospects for a new Europe shaped by

in Europe’s path to crisis
Looking back at the 2017 presidential and parliamentary elections
Alistair Cole

If the 2002 presidential election was a strange affair, the 2017 contest turned out to be even stranger. Between the two elections, the electoral scenarios shifted. In 2002, Jean-Marie Le Pen won through to the second round against expectations, with almost 18% in the first round; massive Republican mobilisation saw the incumbent President Jacques Chirac re-elected with a large majority (81.75%). In 2017, few commentators cast any doubt on the likely presence of Marine Le Pen in the second round, though predictions of a Le Pen victory were more prevalent

in Emmanuel Macron and the two years that changed France
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Silvia Salvatici

secretary of state for health at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Work, a role that he had previously covered for a short time in 1988, in the government of Michel Rocard, and in that same year he was nominated secretary of state for humanitarian action, a cabinet post. Kouchner was a minister four times after that, during the presidencies of François Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac and Nicolas Sarkozy. We might also remember an example concerning Italy: in 2013 Laura Boldrini entered parliament and was later elected president of the Chamber of Deputies. Boldrini worked for

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
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transitions and challenges
Stanley R. Sloan

consultation process. The challenge for the Clinton administration and for US administrations before and after was to be a hegemon without acting like one. The administration had made the mistake of acting like one. The Madrid meeting endorsed the US preference, but not without significant grumbling by French President Jacques Chirac and others. The allies found much to complain about, including the fact that the United States wanted seats in the session for US senators who had been brought along with the US summit delegation to help ensure a favorable ratification

in Defense of the West (second edition)
Michael Byers

But on this occasion it used its political influence to bolster the claim, with President Bill Clinton phoning Tony Blair, Jacques Chirac and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl shortly before the missile strikes to ask for their support. Without having time to consult their legal experts, all three agreed – and made concurring public statements immediately after the U.S. action. As a result of these quick expressions of support by three influential states, other countries were more restrained in their responses than they might have been. This in turn helped obfuscate the

in ‘War on terror’
Tom Gallagher

the court decided not to impose any further penalty such as depriving her of her pension rights. 37 The crisis had erupted against a background of corruption scandals in France which indicated shortcomings in public ethics as the Mitterrand era was replaced by that of Jacques Chirac, President of France from 1995 to 2007. In the ‘wise men’ report, most attention had focused on Edith Cresson, the Commissioner for Research, Science and Technology. An unpopular figure at home in France, she left office after less than one year as Prime Minister in 1991–92 and was

in Europe’s path to crisis
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turbulent transatlantic ties
Stanley R. Sloan

undermine Saddam’s rule. However, most Europeans and many European governments reacted strongly to the Bush administration’s determination to go to war against Iraq no matter what other countries thought, irrespective of how unilateral action might affect the future of international cooperation, and with little regard for the impact on international law. The largely unilateral US approach to Iraq was the instigating event for the crisis in US–European relations, but French President Jacques Chirac and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder helped ensure that the crisis

in Defense of the West (second edition)