suggest, urged a move away from repentance and towards pride in the French
nation. Pascal Bruckner, a philosopher, also joined in this trend, publishing his
book La Tyrannie de la pénitence (2006) insisting that that France should escape
its thrall to the ‘tyrannie de la pénitence’ (tyranny of guilt) and regain its place
in the world. Therefore Sarkozy came to power supported by a groundswell of
intellectual and popular support and a determination to move away from JacquesChirac’s policies of accepting state responsibility for its history, unpalatable as it
is true that some of Honeyford’s claims about self-segregation
were quite inflammatory, his main point, that multicultural piety produces bad
educational attainment and insufficient acculturation, has been borne out since the
2 For a good historical account, see Asari et al. (2008).
3 Gaullism traditionally stands for a strong role for the state in economic affairs (dirigisme) and international affairs (a nuclear France), and for a strongly conservative
approach in matters dealing with immigration and French overseas possessions.