7 Work and activity in mental hospitals in modern Japan, c. 1868–2000 Akira Hashimoto Historians have argued that the modernisation of Japan has not been a simple case of Westernisation, but that in the process of forming a nation state equal to Western countries, modernisation has been intertwined with Japanese nationalism.1 What is more, the Western concept of modernity itself has been questioned.2 Yet, broadly speaking, the course of Japanese modernisation can be mapped in terms of two major sociopolitical changes, both of which were influenced by Western
8 Patient work and family care at Iwakura, Japan, c. 1799–1970 Osamu Nakamura Iwakura is a village located seven kilometres northeast of Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan. It has a famous legend. During the reign of Emperor Go-Sanjo (reigned 1068–72), a princess who was afflicted with a mental condition was cured after praying to the image of Buddha at Daiunji-Temple in Iwakura and drinking water from the temple well.1 This is a well-known story that highlights the connection between Iwakura and mental illness. It was not uncommon for those suffering from a
8 A distinctive nation: vaccine policy and production in Japan Julia Yongue Introduction Public health authorities in every nation have devised distinctive policies to deal with the prevention and spread of infectious diseases, what Jeffrey Baker has referred to as a national ‘style’ of vaccination. 1 While Japan's climate and geography as an island nation in the Far
international case in 2008 (referred to as the ‘Baby Manji’ case) involving a Japanese couple who commissioned the birth of a child through surrogacy services in the Indian province of Gujarat, and then later divorced. The husband still wanted to raise the child, but his ex-wife wanted no part. The biological mother who donated the egg was anonymous and not in the picture, and the Indian surrogate mother who had carried the child held no legal responsibility following childbirth. I learned that this case was but one of many in what was to become a multi-billion dollar
Daniel Kremers also makes this point for migrant advocacy in Japan; ‘Transnational Migrant Advocacy from Japan: Tipping the Scales in the Policy-Making Process’, Pacific Studies , 87:4 (December 2014), 715–41.
we trace ginkgo’s medical history, we will be startled by the inconsistency among different societies’ contemplations of ginkgo’s therapeutic efficacies. For example, when Chinese in the seventeenth century argued that ginkgo could cure disorders of the lungs, their counterparts in Edo Japan (1603–1868) were convinced of ginkgo’s efficacy in promoting digestion. How can an herb affect the body so differently if bodies everywhere are supposedly the same? Within the lungs, the stomach, and the mind 43 In many ways, ginkgo is a perfect object for such inquiries. As
had been trained during the war and before air evacuation training was recommenced in 1949. With the end of the Second World War, many of those nurses still serving found themselves posted to Japan to work as members of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF) based in Bofu and then Iwakuni, and these nurses conducted some air evacuation flights back to Australia. On 25 June 1950, with the outbreak of the Korean War, and under the terms of the agreement for the participation of the British Commonwealth Forces in the United Nations action in Korea, the US
This edited book offers a systematic critical appraisal of the uses of work and work therapy in psychiatric institutions across the globe, from the late eighteenth to the end of the twentieth century. Contributors explore the daily routine in psychiatric institutions within the context of the wider socio-political and economic conditions. They examine whether work was therapy, part of a regime of punishment, or a means of exploiting free labour. By focusing on mental patients’ day-to-day life in closed institutions, the authors fill a gap in the history of psychiatric regimes. The geographic scope is wide, ranging from Northern America to Japan, India and Western as well as Eastern Europe, and authors engage with broader historical questions, such as the impact of colonialism and communism, the effect of the World Wars, and issues of political governance and care in the community schemes.
medicine 163 6.1 “Inaccurate” Chinese view of the body vs. the “accurate” western view of the body. was not a battle that could be won with propaganda in professional journals: real governmental power to establish the anatomical view of the body would be needed. But with an increasingly weak central government in the post-Yuan Shikai era, where would such power reside? Yu Yunxiu made it explicit: anatomically based medicine had not become popular in Japan without the backing of political power, and neither would it become popular in China without legislative and
of years. Compared to its division from biomedicine, TCM shares terms and ideologies, via Chinese characters, with other examples of ‘oriental medicine’, such as Japan's kampo and Korea's dongyi . Even so, the resemblance of these components does not make these medicines more similar. Shaped during the period when these countries were seeking modernization, these medical traditions are often claimed to be highly original and distinct from other traditions in this region. The landscape described above challenged Needham's titration thesis