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Lester K. Little

the mixing of rice with wheat, as is done widely in the East, particularly India and Japan. If bread is lacking, he recommends that they make polenta (in fact the mountain dwellers’ main staple), which they should saturate with milk of any animal, or with a broth thickened with any sort of flour, or with vegetables, or with chestnuts flavoured with fresh butter. As for the poor and miserable, who, Segni is quick to point out, suffer from a famine of all things including money, they should go for goat cheese, bran, and couch grass (a weed that infests fields). He

in Indispensable immigrants
Rachel Stone

deeply held ideas that shape not only Old English heroic poetry but battle narratives from Greenland to Japan.’ 9 One of the few sustained comparisons is P. E. Szarmach, ‘The (sub-) genre of The Battle of Maldon’ , in J. Cooper (ed.), The Battle of Maldon (London, 1993), pp. 43

in Frankland
Shayne Aaron Legassie

Mediterranean and Asian religions than they were in Latin Christianity. See Barbara Ambros, Emplacing a Pilgrimage: The Oyama Cult and Regional Religion in Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), pp. 143–74.  3 On Watling Street, see Howard Loxton, Pilgrimage to Canterbury (London: Rowman & Littlefield, 1978), pp. 144–60; Christopher Taylor, Roads and Tracks of Britain (London: Dent, 1979) pp. 41–4; and F. M. Stenton, ‘The road system of medieval England’, Economic History Review, 7:1 (1936), 1–21.  4 Taylor, Roads and Tracks of Britain, pp. 136

in Roadworks
Norse gods and American comics during the Second World War
Jón Karl Helgason

four different stories about Superman that Siegel and Shuster created from 1939 to 1941, the period leading up to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. In all of them, Goodnow stresses, the authors advocated for a shift in US foreign policy from isolation to intervention. Two of the stories in question, jointly titled ‘Europe at war’, were published in the March and April issues of Action Comics in 1940, around the same time Weird Comics started to serialise comics about Thor. According to Goodnow, Siegel and Shuster’s leitmotif was that ‘if the threat overseas

in From Iceland to the Americas
Ruth Evans

-breaking in rime riche, see Masayoshi Ito, ‘Gower’s use of rime riche in Confessio Amantis: as compared with his practice in Mirour de l’Omme and with the case of Chaucer’, Studies in English Literature (English Literature Society of Japan), 46 (1969), 29–44. Eleanor Johnson discusses rhyme-breaking in Troilus and Criseyde, but calls it ‘the split couplet’; see Johnson, Practicing Literary Theory in the Middle Ages: Ethics and the Mixed Form in Chaucer, Gower, Usk, and Hoccleve (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013), pp. 82–3. 25 Stephen Knight, The Poetry of the

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
Abstract only
Mary C. Flannery

’ misgivings concerning the potentially misleading nature of literary evidence, several historical studies of emotion have made use of literary texts. Reddy has been foremost among those to do so: see for example The Navigation of Feeling and The Making of Romantic Love: Longing and Sexuality in Europe, South Asia, and Japan, 900–1200 CE (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). 18 Sarah McNamer, ‘Feeling’, in Paul Strohm (ed.), Oxford

in Practising shame
Open Access (free)
The wall texts of a Percy family manuscript and the Poulys Daunce of St Paul’s Cathedral
Heather Blatt

, space, and embodiment are inextricably intertwined. For Hansen, these interactions create ‘wearable space’. He explores the notion of wearable space through the Japanese-American artist Arakawa’s concept of the ‘architectural body’: since the body, Hansen summarizes, is always a body in space, it thus becomes an architectural body.24 For Arakawa and his long-time collaborator Madeleine Gins, architecture contributes fundamentally to the fashioning of the self, acting as an ‘outer skin’ that dictates ‘our behavior, beliefs, [and] perceptions, as well as our ways of

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
Boundary rituals, community, and Ascension theology in homilies for Rogationtide
Johanna Kramer

New Critical History of Old English Literature (New York: New York University Press, 1986), pp. 255–8. Nonetheless, some scholars, even fairly recently, have still viewed a text such as the Æcerbot Charm as almost purely pagan rather than as integrated into post-pagan Christianity; for instance, Karl Schneider, ‘The OE. æcerbōt – an Analysis’, in Sophia Lectures on Beowulf, ed. Shoichi Watanabe and Norio Tsuchiya (Tokyo: Taishukan, for the Japan Science Society, 1986), pp. 276–98, at p. 276, sees the Æcerbot Charm as containing elements that ‘are partly of

in Between earth and heaven
Abstract only
Phillipp R. Schofield

linguistic contexts. In some instances, the potential impact of non-English writing on the medieval peasantry has been limited; while relevant work undoubtedly had considerable resonance within the author’s own country and/or language group, the likely subtleties of their research have tended to be hidden in favour of English-language syntheses. This has sometimes evidently been the case for work published in Russian and in Japanese, where a fair amount of relevant research has been undertaken, far greater in fact than that translated into English. 44 Where linguistic

in Peasants and historians
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Anatomy of a metaphor
John M. Ganim

the different temporalities of Japanese history) later in his career, but Rashomon appears not long after Kurosawa’s ninth feature, Stray Dog (1949), which is one of the first self-consciously artistic homages to film noir and which might have influenced Rashomon . Indeed Kurosawa is often quoted as saying that Stray Dog was inspired by Jules Dassin’s Naked City (1947) . Another well

in Medieval film