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John Edwards

In various respects, the division of material between this chapter and the previous one is somewhat arbitrary, as it is hardly possible to make an effective separation between social and economic matters. Nonetheless, whereas chapter III is primarily concerned with Jewish economic activities for their own sake, and Jews’ financial relations with Christian rulers

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
John Edwards

case of a Jewish alchemist in Germany, the rest of the documents in this chapter originated in Italy. They show everyday interaction between Jews and Christians (and, in the case of document 48, Spanish converts from Judaism as well), in such disparate areas as the disposal of Christian art-works in a house newly owned by Jews, and Jewish contributions to the famous Roman

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
Abstract only
John Edwards

. The story begins with the reaction of the king of Castile, Henry III, to the attacks on all the major Jewish communities in the kingdom. After the event, the king ordered the punishment of the ringleaders, but, in the succeeding decades, many Spanish Jews converted to Christianity. Although the letter translated here was addressed specifically to the city council in Burgos, it

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
John Edwards

This may well appear to many to be the most conventional and least unexpected section of the present work, in that there is generally an unconscious or else admitted assumption that, as the Reformation changed so many things for Europe’s Christians, it must therefore have had a similar effect on Jews. As a prelude to the all too familiar works of Martin

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
John Edwards

There are two main aspects of the involvement of Jews in the European economy of the late medieval and early modern periods which have to be considered here. In all western European countries with Jewish populations in this period, there were restrictions on the economic roles which Jews might fulfil. These were justified on theological as much as economic

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
Author:

As European politics, society, economy and religion underwent epoch-making changes between 1400 and 1600, the treatment of Europe's Jews by the non-Jewish majority was, then as in later periods, a symptom of social problems and tensions in the Continent as a whole. Through a broad-ranging collection of original documents, the book sets out to present a vivid picture of the Jewish presence in European life during this vital and turbulent period. This book discusses the history and background of the Jewish presence in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe. As far as the late medieval Church was concerned, the basis for the treatment of Jews, by ecclesiastical and secular authorities, was to be found in the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council of the Roman Church, which were issued in 1215. The book is concerned with Jewish economic activities for their own sake, and Jews' financial relations with Christian rulers. It then concentrates on other aspects of the dealings which went on between European Jews and their Christian neighbours. The book includes the Jews' own economic presence and culture, social relations between Jews and Christians, the policies and actions of Christian authorities in Church and State. It draws upon original source material to convey ordinary people's prejudices about Jews, including myths about Jewish 'devilishness', money-grabbing, and 'ritual murder' of Christian children. Finally, the book demonstrates from the outset that much of the treatment of European Jews, in the period up to the Reformation and thereafter, was to be a practical result of the controversies within 'Christendom' on the subject of authority, whether ecclesiastical or secular.

John Edwards

As the very foundation of the medieval Church’s attitude to the Jews was Scripture, it is proper to begin with some of the texts which particularly influenced the teaching given to Catholics. Included here are some verses from the Gospels and from one of Paul’s epistles. These passages are presented in the Latin of the Vulgate Bible, in which they would

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
Jews as Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
John Edwards

The Jewish contribution to European history Most of world history until the later eighteenth century could be written without more than marginal references to the Jews, except as a small people which pioneered the monotheistic world religions, a debt acknowledged by Islam, but

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
Abstract only
Alison I. Beach
,
Shannon M.T. Li
, and
Samuel S. Sutherland

day, the first of the week, and the doors were shut, where the disciples were gathered together, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them: Peace be with you [John 20:19]. 7 When , he says, it was late ( late , that is, when the end of the world was drawing near) the disciples of the Lord were first gathered together , because while God had always had his own worshippers from the beginning of time, no one before this is said to have secluded himself on account of his love of God. Most are said to have led a religious life in

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany
Abstract only
Janet Hamilton
,
Bernard Hamilton
, and
Yuri Stoyanov

, revealing by the one the moonless darkness of the Jews, by the other foretelling the glory of the resurrection, and finally the deliverance of all the souls that were held in Hades (which took place when our Lord and God appeared to them) and the dissolution of Hades, so that it no longer holds the souls of those who fall asleep in the Lord. 12 28. The unequalled power of the holy cross performed all these

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450