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Timothy Longman

stumbled into genocide, as the strategy of asserting power by exterminating the Tutsi developed even as it was being implemented. The discussion carries echoes of the debate between intentionalists and structuralists in Holocaust studies, a disagreement over whether the genocide of Jews was the direct result of a master plan or grew out of the logic and structures of the Nazi state ( Mason, 1981 : 21–40; Browning, 2004 ). I discussed this issue with Des Forges shortly before her death, and she was inclined to agree with Guichaoua’s perspective, though in practice it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy
and
Victoria Russell

Threatens Lives , 12 July , HRW : Brussels , www.hrw.org/news/2017/07/12/eu-draft-code-sea-rescues-threatens-lives (accessed 7 October 2020 ). Krekó , P. ( 2011 ), ‘ Jobbik Needs Jews to Run the World ’, Political Capital Institute : Budapest , 15

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

and the Congo, or the British and Mau Mau, or the French in Algeria. As the Americans joined the fray post World War II (after Nazi Germany’s attempt to exterminate the Jews, and after the US dropped two atomic bombs on civilians without warning), we can fast-forward to the use of nerve agents in Vietnam, the mass bombing of civilians in Cambodia, the giving of a green light to the government in East Pakistan to commit genocide in what is now Bangladesh or the political support the US gave to Pinochet and the Khmer Rouge. We can go back to the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps
,
Lasse Heerten
,
Arua Oko Omaka
,
Kevin O'Sullivan
, and
Bertrand Taithe

that manner. Yet Biafra also helped establishing the Holocaust as a genocide, singled out from Nazi crimes more generally: genocidal in nature, targeting minority groups and primarily the Jews. These references are thus interesting and insightful not only to get a better grasp of the Nigerian civil war, but they can also help us better understand the mechanics of Holocaust memory [ Heerten, 2017 , 280–4; Smith, 2014 ; Heerten and Moses, 2014 ]. Moreover

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The genesis of Israeli policies of population management, surveillance and political control towards the Palestinian minority

Widely regarded as expert in techniques of surveillance and political control, Israel has been successful in controlling a native population for a long time. Despite tremendous challenges, it has maintained a tight grip over a large Palestinian population in the territories it occupied in the 1967 war. Moreover, it has effectively contained the Palestinian minority inside its 1948 borders. This book discusses the foundation of an Israeli discourse about the Palestinian minority, which Israeli leaders called birour or clarification, and the circumstances of its emergence and crystallization. It talks about the policy of constructing the Palestinians both as non-Jews and as an assortment of insular minorities. The fate of this minority was not only an Israeli internal affair but also an issue of concern to the international community. An analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks, and the role of state power in categorizing the Palestinians, follows. The book also analyses the ways state control and surveillance were implemented at the level of the locality. The book highlights the way state educational policy not just fostered the segmentation described earlier but promoted among students and educators. It then takes up the question of political rights and their meaning under the rule of Military Government. It concludes with personal reflections on the thousands of minutes, protocols, reports, plans and personal messages.

Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová

Hungarian Jewry and the wartime crisis in Austria-Hungary v 7 v Between refugees and the state: Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria-Hungary1 Rebekah Klein-Pejšová Introduction Galician Jews crossed the border by the thousands into the Kingdom of Hungary when Russian troops advanced on the Eastern Front in September 1914. They fled from the Russian army, aware of the fate of Jews in Russia’s western borderlands expelled en masse from their homes and sent deep into the interior of the empire by military commanders fearful of breaches

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

doubt on the naturalness of the official order in which the Palestinians are presented as a mosaic of insular minorities. The aim of this chapter is to deconstruct this order and unveil the role that state power has played, through deliberate planning and direct action, in engineering a social order where ‘ethnic’ categories have been presented as the central or the only form of identification for Palestinians. This constructed order is premised on two representations of the Palestinians: as non-Jews and as a collection of minorities. This balkanized group structure

in Thorough surveillance
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

: the panopticon and the state of exception. That the two models were operative is revealed by the metaphors and arguments which appeared in the writings of witnesses, commentators and scholars who have dealt with the period. 01_Ahmad_Introduction.indd 8 8/19/2013 2:26:39 PM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/19/2013, SPi introduction 9 Chapters 4, 5 and 6 examine specific aspects of the state’s policy of control and surveillance of the Palestinians. In chapter 4, I discuss the policy of constructing the Palestinians both as non-Jews and as an assortment of insular

in Thorough surveillance
Refugees and state building in Lithuania and Courland, 1914–21
Klaus Richter

intensive phase of repatriation, the size of the Jewish and German population of Latvia stood at around half of its pre-war total: Jews numbered fewer than 80,000 ­compared to v 45 v Klaus Richter 142,000 in 1914, and the number of Baltic Germans fell from 120,000 to around 58,000.2 Thus the First World War and repatriation that began during the war and lasted well into the 1920s led to the disentanglement of the multiethnic population of Lithuania and Latvia. Whereas such processes of ‘unmixing’ are commonly associated with expulsions and ‘population exchanges’ such as

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

population has become the main concern of all modern states, for Israel, the size, natural growth, structure, migration and spatial distribution of Palestinians and Israeli Jews have had a fundamental import to its functioning, even to its very survival. As a Jewish state, Israel is premised on racial/national domination (Sa’di, 2004a); therefore, it has devised different, even opposing, principles of governmentality for Palestinians and Jews. Intentionality, elaborate planning and learning, therefore, are at the heart of how Israel handled populations. As the Palestinians

in Thorough surveillance