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Laww, order, and administration
Carey Fleiner

at the centre of the civil war pretty much threw deference out the window, ignored consensus, and pandered to the popular assemblies. Wars and military glory provided new means to power. Certain generals might snub their patrons and take political office on the strength of military exploits – as Marius, Pompey, and Julius Caesar did. New provincial positions out in the hinterlands opened up new opportunities to exploit the local populace and squeeze out extra taxes to keep for oneself (check out Cicero’s prosecution of Verres, for

in A writer’s guide to Ancient Rome
Nine hundred years of pre-Victorian reinvention
Joanne Parker

that turned Alfred into a hero began in his own lifetime. The earliest source that Victorian Alfredianists could turn to for information about the king was the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle – a collection of annals about the British Isles spanning the period from the landing of Julius Caesar to the twelfth century. This chronicle was probably first issued in late 892 or early 893. It may have been completed on the instructions of Alfred – possibly to inspire a sense of unity at a time of Viking invasion – but there is no certain evidence for this.2 In an age of frequent and

in ‘England’s darling’
Politics and performance in 1820
Malcolm Chase

Coburg’s Giovanni in the Country! or, The Rake Husband, which included a version of La Marseillaise and the depiction of a parliamentary election culminating with women presenting a cap of liberty to the victor.22 Sometimes it was subtler but no less powerful. At Leeds, for example, Julius Caesar was presented in June ‘for the first time these thirty years’.23 The production at York’s Theatre Royal was the first in the city since 1813.24 These revivals are consistent with a renewed interest in the play that had begun in Manchester a few weeks after Peterloo. While

in Politics, performance and popular culture
Peter Ernst von Mansfeld’s garden of antiquities in Clausen, Luxemburg, 1563–90
Krista De Jonge

Resurrecting Belgica Romana: Peter Ernst von Mansfeld’s garden of antiquities in Clausen, Luxemburg, 1563–90 11 Krista De Jonge From the earliest decades of the sixteenth century onwards, Netherlandish humanists started searching for archaeological evidence that would confirm their Roman roots. The southern Low Countries, called Belgica after Julius Caesar’s Commentarii de bello Gallico,1 were known to have once been part of Roman Gaul. The quest for local antiquity ran parallel to their studies of antique Rome, on site in Italy or from a distance through more

in Local antiquities, local identities
Abstract only
A writer’s guide to the Romans
Carey Fleiner

The author’s introduction includes a general introduction to the period, that is, the era from the middle to later Republic (roughly the late fourth, early third, centuries BCE) through to the end of the Pax Romana (the end of the second century CE). The main regions covered will be the western regions of the Empire, although there will be discussion of Rome’s involvement with the Greek East, and how Greek culture came to play an important influence in Roman culture; Rome’s involvement with Egypt will also be included, especially as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony’s adventures with Cleopatra are popular topics with authors and screenwriters. The introduction discusses which aspects of Roman culture are discussed in subsequent chapters.

in A writer’s guide to Ancient Rome
Philippa Byrne

partisans of Catiline ought to be punished and the degree of punishment that would be appropriate to their crimes. In Sallust’s account, the debate is dominated by two towering figures of Roman history – Julius Caesar and Marcus Porcius Cato – who, respectively, present the cases for leniency and severe treatment of the prisoners. It is Julius Caesar, Sallust’s own patron, who is first to speak: he argues against imposing a penalty of death on the conspirators, urging that their goods be confiscated and their bodies imprisoned, but that their lives be spared. Caesar

in Justice and mercy
Richard Dutton

Nobility’.16 Q1 and succession Q1 Hamlet is, in Knutson’s analysis, clearly an Elizabethan play, written around the time Julius Caesar contemplated the horrors of regime change and As You Like It conjured a pastoral comedy from the same concerns. It was entered in the Stationers’ Register on 26 July 1602 and so certainly antedated the Queen’s death.17 What relationship the text printed in 1603 had with any earlier Hamlet plays there is no way of knowing, but a play certainly existed by 1589, when Thomas Nashe satirically evoked ‘English Seneca’, who ‘will afford you

in Doubtful and dangerous
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Writing American sexual histories
Author: Barry Reay

The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.

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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

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Gervase Rosser

afterwards when Lud, the brother of Cassibellaun, who made war against Julius Caesar, obtained the government of the kingdom, he surrounded it with stately walls, and towers of admirable workmanship, and ordered it to be called after his name, Kaer-Lud, that is, the City of Lud. Ebraucus was the first after Brutus who invaded Gaul with a fleet, and distressed its provinces by killing their men and laying waste

in Towns in medieval England