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The rapprochement between Germany and Israel in the aftermath of the Holocaust is one of the most striking political developments of the twentieth century. German Chancellor Angela Merkel recently referred to it as a ‘miracle’. But how did this ‘miracle’ come about? Drawing upon sources from both sides of the Iron Curtain and of the Arab–Israeli conflict, Lorena De Vita traces the contradictions and dilemmas that shaped the making of German–Israeli relations at the outset of the global Cold War. Israelpolitik offers new insights not only into the history of German–Israeli relations, but also into the Cold War competition between the two German states, as each attempted to strengthen its position in the Middle East and the international arena while struggling with the legacy of the Nazi past.
von Stauffenberg were gradually elevated to similar status in post-war
West Germany, the legacy of Nazism counselled caution in any form of
heightened admiration. Those who did come to command respect did so for
their doughtiness in establishing democratic and economic stability, for
example, such as the conservative post-war politicians KonradAdenauer and
Ludwig Erhard, but they were hardly considered heroes. Literary giants like
West German chancellor KonradAdenauer said in 1946; ‘[N]ationalism
has experienced the strongest intellectual resistance in those catholic and
protestant parts of Germany that least fell for the teachings of Karl
Marx’ (cited in Weber & Kowert 2007 , 47). He thereby distanced himself at once from
socialism and Prussian, state-led nationalism, to which he felt the
Rhineland had never really subscribed. Concepts
a point of departure, in particular his reference
to creative reconciliation.
In Western Europe after the Second World War, there were people
who had the courage to look at the big picture. People like KonradAdenauer, Robert Schuman, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak, de Gasperi
and others who took the time and who had the leadership, the will and
the political and personal determination to think long, think wide and
to think big. They did not become lost in the micro petty details but
rose above the ashes of that war, seeing hope where there was despair,
Pivot to Asia: Towards New Trilateral Partnerships. Washington, DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations, pp. 109–24.
Yeo, Lay. (2010). “The EU as a Security Actor in Southeast Asia”, in Panorama:
Insights into Asian and Political Affairs. Singapore: Regional Programme Political Dialogue Asia, KonradAdenauer Stiftung.
Yeo, Lay. (2016). “EU Strategy towards Southeast Asia and ASEAN”, in Changing
Waters: Towards a New EU Asia Strategy. London: LSE Ideas, pp. 6–12.
Yeo, Lay Hwee. (2014). “The EU’s Role in Security and Regional Order in East
Asia”, in Peter Shearman (ed
Party, Arseniy Yatsenyuk, called for protests
(dubbed #Euromaidan) on his Twitter account. It was widely expected that the 2015
presidential election would be won, easily and without irregularities, by the opposition,
probably with the boxer, Vitaly Klitschko, as its candidate. Washington, however, was not
keen on this prospect, because Klitschko and members of his UDAR party had been
groomed by the German CDU’s KonradAdenauer Foundation. With people out in
the street, Klitschko now joined the other opposition groups, including Svoboda under
Tyagnybok (the only real
it faced, the West German state was
unlikely to fail because of the absence among democrats of any will to,
or understanding of, power.14
In the first elections of the Federal Republic, the Christian
Democratic party (CDU) scraped a narrow victory. From the outset,
Chancellor KonradAdenauer was convinced that his government had
to commit itself unequivocally to the United States. The pursuit of reunification had indeed to be a reason of state but it could only be securely
realised, Adenauer believed, within the framework of the Atlantic
alliance. Anybody who
as President, defeating Le Pen on second ballot by 82.2 per cent to 17.8 per
Bundestag elections, changes
of government and election of federal presidents
14 August 1949 Bundestag
election. CDU–CSU are largest party.
12 September 1949 Theodor
Heuss (FDP) elected as first federal President.
15 September 1949 KonradAdenauer
to render war service involving the use of arms.’
In both its exogenous and endogenous manifestations, the eﬀects of
Stunde Null were diametrically opposed to the rearming, in whatever
way, of the ﬂedging Federal Republic. However, the imperatives of
rearmament rapidly accelerated and, together with KonradAdenauer’s
disposition towards the regaining of sovereignty through alliance
with the West, the task in hand became not so much if or when
rearmament would occur, but how.
Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd
Stunde Null and