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A study in obsolete patriotism
Author: W.J. Reader

The Victorian private solider was a despised figure. Yet in the first sixteen months of the Great War two and a half million men from the UK and many more from the empire, flocked to the colours without any form of legal compulsion. This book is the result of reflection on one of the most extraordinary mass movements in history: the surge of volunteers into the British army during the first sixteen months of the Great War. The notion that compulsory service in arms was repugnant to British tradition was mistaken. The nation's general state of mind, system of values and set of attitudes derived largely from the upper middle class, which had emerged and become dominant during the nineteenth century. The book examines the phenomenon of 1914 and the views held by people of that class, since it was under their leadership that the country went to war. It discusses the general theoretical notions of the nature of war of two nineteenth-century thinkers: Karl von Clausewitz and Charles Darwin. By 1914 patriotism and imperialism were interdependent. The early Victorians directed their abundant political energies chiefly towards free trade and parliamentary reform. It was the Germans' own policy which jolted the British into unity, for the Cabinet and the nation were far from unanimously in favour of war until the Germans attacked Belgium. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of 'liberal education' at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge.

Vanessa Heggie

training courses, actors in both the medical and sporting spheres were still able to identify some practices as novel or innovative, others as old-fashioned or traditional, and yet more as scientific or mere quackery. What this chapter will go on to show is that both philosophical and physiological theories constrained and informed the construction of sports medicine; these ideas were part of the shared values and liberal education of a generation of middle-class men who, as doctors or amateur athletes, contributed to an understanding of the athletic body in the early

in A history of British sports medicine
Herman Bondi, Karl Popper and the making of scientific citizens
Neil Calver

-age education, Bondi additionally highlighted falsification and hypothetico-­deductivism in his account of a liberal scientific education.1 Bondi’s effort to secure science as the basis for a liberal education was both timely and difficult. He was troubled by a post-war education system that seemed designed to entrench the sciences and the humanities in opposing camps. Given that politicians and senior civil servants had in the main received a classical education, this meant that fundamental misunderstandings between Westminster, Whitehall and scientists echoed on into future

in Scientific governance in Britain, 1914–79
Localising ‘universal’ learning
Tamson Pietsch

middle class to higher civilization, the result of a more intellectual education’. 18 This kind of liberal education was relatively easy to transport to colonial locations. As John Langton, the vice-chancellor of the University of Toronto, pointed out in 1860, the ‘ordinary text-books used in education, the classical authors in various languages, the books of reference in common use

in Empire of scholars
Medicine and the world of letters
Michael Brown

Providence and because: To understand the general principles of natural philosophy is highly ornamental to the physician, for without a knowledge of these (which is by no means difficult to be attained) no man can pass through life in the character of a gentleman.9 Withers’ work suggests that a broad liberal education, embracing polite and ornamental knowledge, was central to a late eighteenth-century culture of medicine in which gentility and social inclusion were paramount concerns. He was not alone in his opinions. His mentor, John Gregory, had told his students that

in Performing medicine
W.J. Reader

Sassoon, Ronald Knox, Raymond Asquith’s sister Lady Violet Bonham-Carter, and other friends, relations and servants. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of ‘liberal education’ - that is, education for the life of a gentleman - at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge. Among the Souls and their children links with Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, were especially strong. As Raymond Asquith’s epitaph was intended to indicate, it was principally an education in classical literature

in 'At duty’s call'
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The Universities’ Bureau and the expansive nation
Tamson Pietsch

. However, the war did not herald the unbridled turn to science and to America that both contemporaries and some historical accounts tend to suggest. 6 Although the war had very much been a war of science, it had also been hugely destructive. In this context, the congress delegates saw the universities and the liberal education they traditionally offered as holding a renewed importance

in Empire of scholars
Brett L. Shadle

not adopt the manner towards Europeans that is so objectionable in the averaged [ sic ] mission trained boy’. 38 For many years liberal education would be inappropriate. Educated Africans, it was said, believed themselves too good for real, physical labour. H. Ryle Shaw of Ruiru considered that ‘A smattering of reading and writing generally gives savages insufferable conceit

in The souls of white folk
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Politeness, sociability and the culture of medico-gentility
Michael Brown

served as a potent tool of social and cultural distinction, one whose attributes were regarded as the preserve of the social elite.59 Some practitioners stood closer to the values of politeness and gentility than others. Physicians were at a particular advantage in having attended university. Even at Edinburgh, where specifically medical forms of instruction were more common than at Oxford and Cambridge, medical students would have received a broad liberal education and would be expected to have a reasonably thorough knowledge of the liberal arts and the classics

in Performing medicine
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

European debate. In American sociology and history of the 1950s and 1960s, ‘the German university’ had been branded a hotbed of reactionism – anti-democratic and illiberal, dedicated to metaphysics, and a forum for social preservation. Brandser argues that a reinterpretation occurred during the following decades: Humboldt was combined with a tradition of Anglo-Saxon liberal education at a time of an accelerating market adaptation of the university; and it was in this form that Humboldt’s ideas returned to Europe. As in all such processes of circulation, the transfer from

in Humboldt and the modern German university