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A study in obsolete patriotism
Author: W.J. Reader

The Victorian private solider was a despised figure. Yet in the first sixteen months of the Great War two and a half million men from the UK and many more from the empire, flocked to the colours without any form of legal compulsion. This book is the result of reflection on one of the most extraordinary mass movements in history: the surge of volunteers into the British army during the first sixteen months of the Great War. The notion that compulsory service in arms was repugnant to British tradition was mistaken. The nation's general state of mind, system of values and set of attitudes derived largely from the upper middle class, which had emerged and become dominant during the nineteenth century. The book examines the phenomenon of 1914 and the views held by people of that class, since it was under their leadership that the country went to war. It discusses the general theoretical notions of the nature of war of two nineteenth-century thinkers: Karl von Clausewitz and Charles Darwin. By 1914 patriotism and imperialism were interdependent. The early Victorians directed their abundant political energies chiefly towards free trade and parliamentary reform. It was the Germans' own policy which jolted the British into unity, for the Cabinet and the nation were far from unanimously in favour of war until the Germans attacked Belgium. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of 'liberal education' at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge.

The Negro Education Grant and Nonconforming missionary societies in the 1830s
Felicity Jensz

Britain, as well as to broader debates around the two principles of religious liberty and religious equality. From the context of the discussion it is clear that ‘liberal’ did not refer exclusively to liberal education. The term ‘liberal education’ itself was as much as an ideal as a practice. In the eighteenth century, liberal education was connected to the notions of ‘character formation, as preparation

in Missionaries and modernity
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could both contribute to the creation of a moral social order as well as having the potential to foster moral crisis and anti-British sentiments. Missionaries and governments: religion, modernity and secularisation In the nineteenth century, education was generally seen as ‘a characteristic feature of modern civilization’. 38 The provision of universal liberal education

in Missionaries and modernity
The Edinburgh World Missionary Conference, 1910
Felicity Jensz

professionals, who had been inspired by Western liberal education. Within Britain, public attention had been given to the ‘Indian Unrest’ in the columns of The Times in 1910, with its correspondent Valentine Chirol linking secular education in India, bereft of all moral and religious content, with political unrest. 141 Although ‘unrest’ was a term associated with the ‘Indian Renaissance’ of the

in Missionaries and modernity
Localising ‘universal’ learning
Tamson Pietsch

middle class to higher civilization, the result of a more intellectual education’. 18 This kind of liberal education was relatively easy to transport to colonial locations. As John Langton, the vice-chancellor of the University of Toronto, pointed out in 1860, the ‘ordinary text-books used in education, the classical authors in various languages, the books of reference in common use

in Empire of scholars
W.J. Reader

Sassoon, Ronald Knox, Raymond Asquith’s sister Lady Violet Bonham-Carter, and other friends, relations and servants. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of ‘liberal education’ - that is, education for the life of a gentleman - at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge. Among the Souls and their children links with Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, were especially strong. As Raymond Asquith’s epitaph was intended to indicate, it was principally an education in classical literature

in 'At duty’s call'
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The Universities’ Bureau and the expansive nation
Tamson Pietsch

. However, the war did not herald the unbridled turn to science and to America that both contemporaries and some historical accounts tend to suggest. 6 Although the war had very much been a war of science, it had also been hugely destructive. In this context, the congress delegates saw the universities and the liberal education they traditionally offered as holding a renewed importance

in Empire of scholars
Brett L. Shadle

not adopt the manner towards Europeans that is so objectionable in the averaged [ sic ] mission trained boy’. 38 For many years liberal education would be inappropriate. Educated Africans, it was said, believed themselves too good for real, physical labour. H. Ryle Shaw of Ruiru considered that ‘A smattering of reading and writing generally gives savages insufferable conceit

in The souls of white folk
Uyilawa Usuanlele

respectable thing than education?’ The paper went on to demand ‘the establishment or support of good elementary schools by the Government with an efficient inspector at their head … because no people, as a people, are more anxious for the advantages of liberal education than the people of Lagos. From time to time, we see the strenuous efforts put forth, and the enormous sacrifice made

in Developing Africa
Stephanie Barczewski

attempting to establish himself as a planter in his own right, offering advice: ‘It is expected from you, and you only, that your affairs are managed with judgment and unremitting attention. Though the minutiae of this kind of business is generally despised by young men of . . . liberal education, . . . yet experience has taught me it is essentially necessary to be attended to, and it is of the first consequence, if you

in Country houses and the British Empire, 1700–1930