ideologies. MichelFoucault and many others after him see the will to knowledge as a will to power (Foucault 1976 (French); 1990 (English)). Technological and organisational progress has a share in the responsibility for the worst genocide of the twentieth century, the Holocaust (Bauman 1989 ). Knowledge, facts, and truth, in particular, are called into doubt as concepts, goals, and means. Knowledge is said to be a social construction that can be negotiated in a laboratory (Latour & Woolgar 1979 ). Enlightenment’s radical doubt has been directed against enlightenment
the use of tools and images.
In the Western history of ideas, modernity or the modern age is generally defined as beginning in the decades around 1800; that is, the period of the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars. In the work of the influential historian of ideas and philosopher MichelFoucault, we thus find a division between the classical and the modern epoch around 1800, but no explanations for the transition. In Les mots et les choses (English: The Order of Things ), Foucault described a shift in which each epoch or episteme imposed
the existing society. According to this line of thought, society should not merely be described; it should be changed as well. Post-structuralism’s power-and-discourse criticism follows, with MichelFoucault as the central name. Finally, mention should be made of postcolonialism’s reckoning with a Western perspective on the world; one important work here is Edward Said’s book Orientalism ( 1978 ).
Critical theory, poststructuralism, and postcolonialism come together in the critical study of the uses of the past and “the others” that emerged in the 1970s and 1980
, wealth, and labour – epitomised in The Wealth of Nations, a foundational text on political economy by Scottish economist Adam Smith ( 1776 ; Tarlow 2007 : 22). In his book, Madness and Civilisation , MichelFoucault goes further to situate the change in thinking about lunacy within a more general ‘Great Confinement’: the separation and institutionalisation of those who could not contribute to the new industrialising economy ( 2006 : 43). The scale of the new state-sponsored institutions and their aesthetic gravitas and monumentality supports Foucault
Pluralism and the politics of change in Canada’s national museums
Ruth B. Phillips
, even by the project team; ‘I was surprised’, project manager
Miriam Proulx said, ‘by how many people were reading everything. This
was a different kind of exhibit.’13 When asked how he had initially arrived at
the four-story structure, curator MacLeod responded that this is ‘how I do
history’, and cited the changes in his discipline that began in the 1960s, as
theorists like Hayden White and MichelFoucault exposed the importance
of attending to narrative tropes and epistemic changes. Indeed, MacLeod’s
doctoral thesis and first book dealt with First Nations
historian of ideas MichelFoucault, who called his own method for bringing out knowledge hidden in the archives “archaeological” (cf. Foucault 1966 (French); 1971 (English); 1969 (French); 1972 (English)).
Metaphorical archaeology is tempting with its undisciplined freedom. But my method is perhaps the opposite of archaeology. Neither non-archaeology nor pseudo-archaeology, it is a kind of anti-archaeology. Because whereas archaeology digs deep and works with materiality in a long temporal perspective, I will look up from the ground to the sky in an attempt to form
Ireland at this point. This period of mass institutionalisation in England and Ireland, what has been referred to by historian MichelFoucault as the Great Confinement, coincided and was heavily informed by a movement towards improving and ordering public spaces and imbuing the streetscape with a spirit of obedience. The improvement of civic spaces like Sackville Street in Dublin, or the imposition of grid patterns in new city centres like the Edinburgh New Town, were part of this movement. Archaeological studies of urban landscapes and neo-classical architecture in the
of architects, doctors, and managers alike, and will be explored here with reference to one of the most common architectural principals attributed to asylum buildings, the panopticon .
Confinement was a facet of industrial life which, some have theorised, was necessary in order to maintain a social, industrious norm. In Discipline and Punish , MichelFoucault noted that the practice of individualising those who failed to conform to the expected standards of behaviour in an industrial city – i.e. those who could not or would not work