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Robert H. MacDonald

which imperialism was given imaginative form. In arguing thus for the importance of the metaphorical construction of empire, I begin with the understanding that language is itself a determinant in the perception of reality. Following some of the theoretical positions derived from the work of Michel Foucault, I focus on the role of discourse as a conventional but privileged language use

in The language of empire
Rustam Alexander

employed in the struggle with sexual perversions’. The head of the GULAG also suggested that apart from prison officers, specialists in psychiatry, forensic medicine and venereology should also be engaged in the effort to eradicate homosexuality in the GULAG system. 4 Yegorov’s decree represented, in Michel Foucault’s words, an ‘institutional incitement’ to speak about homosexuality and a ‘determination on the part of the agencies of power to hear it spoken about’. 5 It was also apparently one of the first serious and massive attempts of the Soviet officials to bring

in Regulating homosexuality in Soviet Russia, 1956–91
Reason and relation in the work cure
Jennifer Laws

of Friends (York: W. Alexander, 1813), p. 153.   2 Anne Digby, Madness, Morality and Medicine: A study of the York Retreat, 1796– 1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. xiii.   3 Jennifer Laws, ‘Crackpots and basket-cases: A history of therapeutic work and occupation’, History of the Human Sciences, 24 (2011), 65–81.   4 Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilisation: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, trans. R. Howard (London: Tavistock, 1967), p. 247.  5 Tuke, Description of the Retreat, p. 156.   6 Sigmund Freud, Civilisation and Its

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
The Dewan Bahasadan Pustaka (House of Language) and Malaysia’s cultural decolonisation
Rachel Leow

This essay argues that an examination of the cultural effects of decolonisation can yield a clearer appreciation of the combined role of both coloniser and colonised in the making of the postcolonial order. Taking an approach informed by Michel Foucault, Jean-François Bayart and Romain Bertrand, it shows that the ethnic tensions which erupted over questions of national language planning, multilingualism, and culture in postcolonial Malaya, and persist through to the present, cannot be explained away as a simple “colonial legacy” inflicted by British divide-and-rule policies. They must also be recognised as the result of a particular hegemonic configuration, produced and maintained through the agency of postcolonial subjects themselves.

in Cultures of decolonisation
An introduction to Gothic fashion
Catherine Spooner

At the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first, both Gothic literature and the history and theory of fashion have achieved increasing prominence within academic discourse. They have been reinstated from marginal disciplines to vital and important areas of intellectual enquiry. The emphasis on the surface in Gothic narratives can also be related to the emergence of the sensibility now known as camp. Judith Halberstam's contribution is most significant in her gesture towards the Gothic body as a kind of patchwork entity, stitched together from fragments and scraps of discourse. The concentration on fashion 'technologies', or 'techniques of fashioning the body' inspired by Michel Foucault's work, has enabled fashion theorists to evade the conventional dichotomies of primitive and civilised, natural and artificial which have plagued the constructions of dress.

in Fashioning Gothic bodies
Abstract only
Geertje Mak

elaborate on the problem of the (absence of ) the sexed self. These memoirs will be familiar to many readers through the reissue introduced by Michel Foucault and the consequent hot discussions from several theoretical points of view. My close reading of the memoirs will doubt Foucault’s suggestion that at the time ‘true sex’ referred to both a physical and a psychological sex. After having explained how the biological opinion increasingly excluded the concept of hermaphroditism and forced people to have only one primary sexual identity, which had to be deciphered by

in Doubting sex
Open Access (free)
Birgit Lang, Joy Damousi, and Alison Lewis

Conclusion Birgit Lang, Joy Damousi and Alison Lewis This volume delineates the changing forms of the case study across disciplines and decades, mapping circuits of knowledge through which the sexed and gendered human subject became a persistently urgent topic of enquiry in the Western world. A History of the Case Study presents an analysis of case writing about the human subject from a critical juncture in its formation in the second half of the nineteenth century, when, as claimed by Michel Foucault, sexuality came to be regarded as a conceptual part of human

in A history of the case study
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

Then and now

political ideologies. Michel Foucault's ‘docile bodies’ of the twentieth century have not disappeared. The acts of surveillance, regulation, and taxonomy remain pivotal, in explicit and discrete ways, to how state(s) apparatus demonstrate value to society and the value of society. Legacies of the Magdalen Laundries emerges during the Decade of Centenaries in Ireland, and its authors remain fully cognisant of this difficult yet significant temporal resonance. This volume is an academic, artistic, and activist response drawing from intersectional fields of research to

in Legacies of the Magdalen Laundries
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.