society itself ( Zijderveld, 1982 : 16–17). CIRCA transplanted this subject into (or onto the threshold of) specific political spaces: the police line, the kettle, the occupation, the roadblock, the ‘global justice’ march and so on. Imitating the militaristic rituals, symbols, practices and knowledges by and through which neoliberal order is maintained and secured, the Clown Army enacted and sustained encounters with the actual army (and/or the police) that asked questions of their claims to legitimacy. Drawing on MichelFoucault’s examination of the grotesque in his
cannot claim the status of ‘subject’ in the first place (cf. Butler, 2006 ). Drawing on the laugh that inspires MichelFoucault’s enquiry into the discursive production of order in The Order of Things , I suggest that humour often engages with, probes at and/or reflects these boundary-drawing processes, as well as the vectors of in- and exclusion that they produce. It thereby offers a way into understanding the construction and contestation not just of this or that subjective identity, but also of the terms of belonging through which subjective being is initially
Chapter 2 provides the theoretical framework for the book’s empirical analysis and clarifies a number of theoretical and conceptual tools that are central to this book’s objectives and contributions. Power and security are two such concepts, and the chapter begins by clarifying the conceptualisation of power outlined by Michel Foucault that is adopted in this study by elaborating upon one of his ideas: power/knowledge. From here the chapter hones in on the ‘third modality’ of power, that of governmentality, to demonstrate how this functions across society and the role that the security dispositif plays in allowing this form of power to function. Prior to embarking on the empirical analysis, this chapter’s final section ties together the work on power, governance and security with established work on both ‘epistemic communities’ and ‘security professionals’. I elaborate on these theorisations to link the productive functioning of power with the role particular ‘privileged’ experts play within the dispositif to give meaning to the phenomenon of security, sediment certain understandings, prioritise particular responses and foreclose alternative thinking. It is in this final section where I most explicitly make the argument for the need to conduct constructivist research into private security industry discourse.
contradicts, but also removes from the field
of inquiry any consideration of the forms of power that characterize modern
states, namely their use of what MichelFoucault has called ‘bio-politics’: that
is, the management of the size, natural growth, ethnic composition, age structure, spatial distribution, health, literacy and educational levels and economic
conditions of their populations (see, e.g., Curtis, 2002; Foucault, 2009).
The consensus that the new Israeli state had no systematic policy towards
its native Arab population and was not intent on managing it is
In my first chapter, I outlined a theory of humour focused on its performative contribution to the production of political subjectivity. Humour is a field of everyday practice through which people come to negotiate and occupy particular subject-positions – in which capacity it also plays an active and constitutive role in the making and unmaking of intersubjective relations. With reference to the laugh that opens MichelFoucault’s The Order of Things , however, I also noted that humour often operates across the boundary separating the ‘domain of
MichelFoucault’s work, in particular during his genealogical phase, was at its heart a problem-solving endeavour. He sought to identify a problem ‘expressed in the terms current today’ ( Foucault, 1988 , p. 262) and then tried to make sense of it through analysing the descent of the object, identifying the fingerprints of power, explaining why the problem is constituted a certain way in the present and considering what alternative knowledge has been rejected in this process. In Foucault’s own words the role of the ‘intellectual’, therefore, was to
also an ambiguous and indeterminate one) in the creation and maintenance of such distinctions, in which capacity it also helps to shape and reshape intersubjective relations both within and between political communities.
Drawing on the laugh that underpins MichelFoucault’s investigations in The Order of Things , I argue that humour does not only participate in the performative production of different subjectivities, but also engages with the exclusionary terms by which a domain of the subject is initially made possible. Humour can therefore be understood
Chapter 2 provides the theoretical framework for the book’s empirical analysis and clarifies a number of theoretical and conceptual tools that are central to its objectives and contributions. Power and security are two such concepts and the chapter begins by clarifying the conceptualisation of power outlined by MichelFoucault by elaborating upon one of his ideas: power/knowledge. From here the chapter hones in on the ‘third modality’ of power, that of governmentality, to demonstrate how this functions across society and the role that the security dispositif plays in
an essential part in the way
discourse is structured. Narratives are a means of structuring discourse.
Correspondingly, the following empirical chapters on pirates, rebels and
mercenaries are interested in the structural power of discourse. Drawing on
MichelFoucault, the book shares an understanding of discourse that is ‘above’
individual discourse-participants. In contrast to many approaches used in
critical discourse analysis, where there is extensive agency over discourse
and where discourse is actively used by agents in pursuit of their interests
Stewart Sugg. Written by Matt Wood. YouTube .
The confusion is partly grounded in the fact that autonomy has different meanings in the humanities and in computer science/engineering. From the Enlightenment onwards, autonomy has been related to the free and self-aware subject which chooses its own maxims self-determinedly and consciously – as famously formulated by Immanuel Kant. Even though this concept has been challenged by theorists such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, MichelFoucault and Judith Butler, it still predominates in many realms – for example, ethics