Concerns of linguistic, cultural and military incursion from France emerge more frequently in the wake of the Seven Years’ War. In the literary arena, one of the ways in which these concerns are marked is through the highly-contested national stakes of chivalry. This essay argues that these national stakes of chivalry are negotiated in the realm of the Gothic romance in a particularly fluid and dynamic manner. Addressing recent critical assumptions about the conservatism inherent in prose treatments of medieval chivalry, the essay explores the possibility that Gothic romance recuperates a more positive version of chivalry in the wake of the famous Burke/Wollstonecraft revolutionary debate of 1790.
This essay argues that Stephen King‘s 2006 novel Cell explores the age of terror with the aid of two concurrent Gothic discourses. The first such discourse belongs to the tradition that Patrick Brantlinger has termed Imperial Gothic. As such, it imagines with the War on Terror that the threat that the (Gothic) Other constitutes is most usefully managed with the help of massive, military violence. The other, and more traditional, Gothic discourse radically imagines such violence as instead a War of Terror. The essay then argues that Cell does not attempt to reconcile these opposed positions to terror. Instead, the novel employs the two Gothic discourses to describe the epistemological rift that terror inevitably creates.
The first major post-Cold War conflict, the 1991 Gulf war, indicated how much had already changed. Saddam Hussein had enjoyed Western support in Iraq's war against Iran in the 1980s, but was abruptly cast as the 'new Hitler' after his invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. This book is about how the media have interpreted conflict and international intervention in the years after the Cold War. By comparing press coverage of a number of different wars and crises, it seeks to establish which have been the dominant themes in explaining the post-Cold War international order and to discover how far the patterns established prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have subsequently changed. The key concern is with the legitimacy of Western intervention: the aim is to investigate the extent to which Western military action is represented in news reporting as justifiable and necessary. The book presents a study that looks at UK press coverage of six conflicts and the international response to them: two instances of 'humanitarian military intervention' (Somalia and Kosovo); two cases in which the international community was criticised for not intervening (Bosnia and Rwanda); and two post-9/11 interventions (Afghanistan and Iraq). There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. Operation Restore Hope was the first major instance of post-Cold War humanitarian military intervention, following the precedent set by the establishment of 'safe havens' for Iraqi Kurds and other minorities at the end of the 1991 Gulf war.
There were a number of overlapping
UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. The United
Nations Mission to Somalia (UNOSOM) began in April 1992 and was
succeeded by UNOSOM II, which operated from March 1993 until March 1995.
A US airlift of food aid, Operation Provide Relief, was launched in
August 1992, and Operation Restore Hope, a UN-authorised military
Representations of war and rurality in British and American film
Rachel Woodward and Patricia Winter
of ongoing military campaigns. The Battle of the Somme (1916),
famously, combined documentary footage with reconstructions of specific
events for the purposes of cinematic entertainment. Small though the
genre might be, given the long history of violent conflict as a subject
for feature films the diversity of the genre is unsurprising. Indeed,
war films struggle against their classification as
Monstrous becomings in Abel Ferrara’s Body Snatchers
(Terry Kinney) about the toxicity of
chemicals stored on the military base at which he is stationed:
interfere with chemoneurological processes? Can they foster
psychosis, paranoias, narcophobias? . . . Simply, can they alter
a person’s view of reality . . . I’m seeing people
at the infirmary who are
This chapter focuses on Operation
Enduring Freedom: the US-led military action in Afghanistan, undertaken
in response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. In
justifying its military response, the US cited both the authority of the
UN Security Council, which passed a resolution on 12 September 2001
describing the terrorist attacks as a ‘threat to international
and her scant knowledge of the song’s lyrics point to this position. Leo is clearly recovering but a return to the village for good is not an option. Her recovery will be marked by a return to Madrid to start again on her own and a burgeoning relationship with Ángel, a man whose very name highlights his blended masculinity and femininity, as opposed to soldier ex-husband’s Paco, a nickname for Francisco, evoking the most notorious military man of all, General Francisco Franco.
Almodóvar may be idealising La Mancha in general in this film, and female solidarity in
justifications promoted by Nato leaders – framing the bombing as
an epic struggle of good against evil, drawing comparisons with the
Holocaust and justifying military action in terms of moral values based
on human rights – drew on ideas and themes which had been
developed by journalists advocating tougher action in Bosnia.
In at least some cases it is clear that media
commentators knew that morally simplified
The last of our case studies
concerns another conflict which, at the time of writing, is still
ongoing: the invasion and occupation of Iraq. Military action was
launched by a US-led coalition on 20 March 2003 as a
‘pre-emptive’ strike, justified mainly through allegations
(subsequently proven to be false) that Iraq possessed ‘weapons of
mass destruction’ (WMD). A secondary