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A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders

destroyed, diverted, or programs have to be scaled down to minimise risk to personnel. However, whether in complex emergencies or in response to natural disasters, militaries often play an important role in humanitarian relief efforts, sometimes by providing search and rescue and airlift capabilities or by restoring damaged infrastructure. Indeed, in most of today’s crises, humanitarian organisations operate in the same environment as a range of military and non-state armed actors. Coordination is often easier in natural disaster settings than in conflict, as there is a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
James Johnson

What is AI, and how does it differ from other technologies? What are the possible development paths and linkages between these technologies and specific capabilities, both existing and under development? This chapter defines and categorizes the current state of AI and AI-enabling technologies. 1 The chapter highlights the centrality of machine learning (ML), 2 and autonomous systems (or ‘machine autonomy’), 3 to understanding AI in the military sphere and the potential uses of these nuanced approaches in

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Ahmad H. Sa’di

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/19/2013, SPi 7 Political rights under a military rule Irreconcilable conceptualization? Citizenship, as a bundle of rights and as experience, is regarded in the political thought as a safeguard for the citizens against excesses by the state or by powerful groups (e.g. Marshall, 1950). Among these, political rights have been associated with highly esteemed notions such as the sovereignty of the people. However, what could the meaning of political rights be under a state of exception, where the basic rights, which enable citizens to

in Thorough surveillance
Charles Bartles

The content of military operations is changing. Their spatial scope is growing and their intensity and dynamism are increasing. Time parameters of the preparation and conduct of operations are shortening. There is a transition from successive concentrated actions to continuous distributed actions conducted simultaneously in all spheres of opposition as well as in remote theaters of military action. Demands on troop mobility are toughening. A transition is being made to comprehensive engagement

in Russian Grand Strategy in the era of global power competition
James Johnson

that the strategic competition playing out within a broad range of dual-use AI and AI-enabling technologies will likely narrow the technological gap separating great military powers (notably the US and China) and, to a lesser extent, other technically advanced small–medium powers. 3 The chapter builds on the growing body of literature that reinforces the perception in the US that China’s pursuit of AI technologies will threaten the first-mover advantage that the US has in a range of dual-use (and military

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Alexander Spencer

4 US narratives of private military and security companies in Iraq While many of us wanted to be a pirate in our childhood or had sympathies with rebels such as Che Guevara in our teenage years, very few people wanted to be a mercenary or private military and security company (PMSC) operative when they were young. And still nobody seems to like PMSCs. As Kateri Carmola (2010: 9) points out, ‘whatever they are, we do not like them’. At least since reports broke out of several fatal shootings in post-invasion Iraq – including the killing of seventeen civilians by

in Romantic narratives in international politics
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

) and its allies. Recent research conducted by the Peace Research Institute Oslo and The Lancet –American University of Beirut (AUB) Commission on Syria suggests targeting of healthcare can now be considered an emerging tactic in conflict ( Druce et al. , 2019 ), and that Syria is a prime example of what has been called the ‘weaponisation of health care’ ( Fouad et al. , 2017 ). While the GoS and Russia have maintained that all military efforts in the Syrian context were against combating parties ( Hill and Triebert, 2019 ), there is a suggestion that the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

, and how? Remotely or on site? At the very least, we had to decipher the diverging political and military agendas, and then adapt, persist or sometimes just give up. In this article, I will present the full range of methods used to acquire knowledge and obtain information as well as the various networks used to carry out this venture. I will also show how Médecins Sans Frontières’ operations became a balancing act, punctuated by episodes of adapting to the various

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Fernando Espada

and that only presents mixed results in the so-called civil–military coordination in humanitarian responses. The challenge for humanitarian agencies to work effectively and according to their missions and principles while cohabitating the same spaces (geographical and others) as military and non-state armed actors has been a headache for decades. Contexts of violent conflict are usually examples of all that can go wrong when civil–military coordination is not prioritised. But those are not the only contexts where humanitarian agencies struggle to find and protect

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

ten articles of the first convention have grown to 559 articles in the version currently in force. In other words, they are now a matter for civilian and military legal experts, who have material open to varied and contradictory readings. Let us go back to IHL’s origins, which can give us an idea of how difficult it was to apply IHL long before what are now described as its more serious and frequent contemporary violations. Humanitarian law is part of a long

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs