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James Doelman

1620s. While he did at times allow allies to enlist soldiers to fight against the Spanish and Imperial powers, England itself mounted no military campaign until 1624. The relative lack of early Stuart experience in war is reflected in a hyperbolic but memorable passage from Anthony Nixon, who wrote in 1610 that if 20,000 English men were brought together, it would be impossible ‘to find or picke out

in The daring muse of the early Stuart funeral elegy
Troilus and Criseyde and Troilus and Cressida

For the last three decades or so, literary studies, especially those dealing with premodern texts, have been dominated by the New Historicist paradigm. This book is a collection of essays explores medieval and early modern Troilus-texts from Chaucer to Shakespeare. The contributions show how medieval and early modern fictions of Troy use love and other emotions as a means of approaching the problem of tradition. The book argues that by emphasizing Troilus's and Cressida's hopes and fears, Shakespeare sets in motion a triangle of narrative, emotion and temporality. It is a spectacle of which tells something about the play but also about the relation between anticipatory emotion and temporality. The sense of multiple literary futures is shaped by Shakespeare's Chaucer, and in particular by Troilus and Criseyde. The book argues that the play's attempted violence upon a prototypical form of historical time is in part an attack on the literary narratives. Criseyde's beauty is described many times. The characters' predilection for sententiousness unfolds gradually. Through Criseyde, Chaucer's Poet displaces authorial humility as arrogance. The Troilus and Criseyde/Cressida saga begins with Boccaccio, who isolates and expands the love affair between Troiolo and Criseida to vent his sexual frustration. The poem appears to be linking an awareness of history and its continuing influence and impact on the present to hermeneutical acts conspicuously gendered female. The main late medieval Troy tradition does two things: it represents ferocious military combat, and also practises ferocious literary combat against other, competing traditions of Troy.

John Drakakis

rue their erstwhile mutual hostility. In the case of Twelfth Night , Shakespeare returned to the device of using twin characters that he had previously used in The Comedy of Errors , and he returned to material he had used in The Taming of the Shrew in the later play Much Ado About Nothing . In the case of plays that are never lumped together, his critical view of military heroism that surfaces in the Henry IV plays and in Henry V is revisited even more critically in Troilus and Cressida . Also, in the

in Shakespeare’s resources
Theatre, form, meme and reciprocity
John Drakakis

nephew) is placed in the position of revenger, although no restraint is placed upon him. Hamlet begins with news of the invasion of young Fortinbras, whose military ethic appears not quite to resemble that of his father, Old Norway, but who seems bent on revenge (and the repossession of land) in compensation for his father’s death. Horatio’s long and necessary account of the Old Hamlet–Norway encounter is crucial in order to establish the respect that both chivalric leaders had for the fundamental link between the recording

in Shakespeare’s resources
Abstract only
Shakespeare, Jonson and the circulation of theatrical ideas
John Drakakis

asserts: ‘I am no strumpet / But of life as honest as you, that thus / Abuse me’ ( Othello , 5.1.121–3). This remark is addressed to Emilia, who is herself at times economical with the truth. But as an audience, we are required (as indeed is Othello himself from time to time) to make a judgement on the basis of partial evidence. Indeed, there is only one exception to this general practice, which is the Duke, who in Act 1 Scene 3 refuses to act until he has collated all of the reports concerning the Turks’ military

in Shakespeare’s resources
John Drakakis

specified: ambitious and military Fulvia, whose sexual proclivities Cleopatra bitchily questions – ‘Can Fulvia die?’ (1.3.59); Octavia, who in proposing the strategic match with Antony is described by Agrippa as one ‘Whose virtue and whose general graces speak / That which none else can utter’ (2.2.137–8), and who is subject to Caesar’s ‘power’ and is used as a political pawn; and Cleopatra, who uses her sexuality to blunt the force of Roman military power and to undermine its colonial ambitions, as well as its cultural forms. If

in Shakespeare’s resources
John Drakakis

, that Shakespeare’s own meaning is the greatest of meanings and it is one the world needs’. 47 This sentiment, coming in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, replicates the ideology of E.M.W. Tillyard’s The Elizabethan World Picture (1943) and is part of the case to identify and emphasise the humanising influence of the Arts against the devastating consequences of a scientifically generated and devastating military technology. 48 Bloom’s terms ‘contingency’ and ‘facticity’ are part of a shared vocabulary

in Shakespeare’s resources

Ralph Knevet's Supplement of the Faery Queene (1635) is a narrative and allegorical work, which weaves together a complex collection of tales and episodes, featuring knights, ladies, sorcerers, monsters, vertiginous fortresses and deadly battles – a chivalric romp in Spenser's cod medieval style. The poem shadows recent English history, and the major military and political events of the Thirty Years War. But the Supplement is also an ambitiously intertextual poem, weaving together materials from mythic, literary, historical, scientific, theological, and many other kinds of written sources. Its encyclopaedic ambitions combine with Knevet's historical focus to produce an allegorical epic poem of considerable interest and power.

This new edition of Knevet's Supplement, the first scholarly text of the poem ever published, situates it in its literary, historical, biographical, and intellectual contexts. An extensive introduction and copious critical commentary, positioned at the back of the book, will enable students and scholars alike to access Knevet's complicated and enigmatic meanings, structures, and allusions.

Martial identities and the subject of conquest in Derricke’s Image of Irelande
Maryclaire Moroney

John Derricke’s Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne (1581) famously features a sequence of woodcuts purporting to illustrate a series of military engagements between Irish troops and the forces commanded by Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy of Ireland during the later 1570s. The images have long been used by historians and literary scholars to illustrate studies of Elizabethan Ireland, and to that end, the woodcuts have been scrutinised for their accuracy in depicting Irish clothing, hairstyles

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
Heads or tales?
Richard Hillman

mimetic complicity between an age’s political occupations and its intellectual preoccupations seems determined to validate itself. In any case, that presumption, by and large, has governed recent approaches to early modern theatrical warfare: an impressive array of contemporary cultural documents on military subjects has been mustered, then pressed into the service of textual explication. The orientation

in French origins of English tragedy