around the likely costs of a particular health activity and to compare this
against a ‘willingness to pay’ threshold, in order to judge their value for money.
Economic evaluations can be done as part of randomised controlled trials
or can draw on evidence taken from other sources (e.g. surveys). Similar to
clinical evidence, economic evidence needs to be updated and researched as
new questions arise or more evidence becomes available.
By the end of this chapter you should be able to:
1. Understand why economic evaluations are needed
Quantitative research design
Owen Price and Karina Lovell
Quantitative research uses large samples and, as such, the findings of
well-conducted studies can often be generalised to larger populations.
However, it is important that studies are well-designed to avoid errors in
their interpretation and/or the reporting of inaccurate results. Misleading
results from quantitative studies can have serious negative implications such
as wasting public money on flawed policies and subjecting service users to
ineffective or harmful treatments
the proposed methods will answer the
research question; that the study represents good value for money; that it
be conducted safely and in line with ethical guidelines (see chapter 9); and
that the research team are the right people to do the work (Aldridge and
BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 15
Funders will also want to see that the proposal is well structured and is written
simply and clearly, including a summary of the proposed research which
is accessible and understandable to members of the public (Aldridge and
seventeenth century, for example, were based in coffee houses, allowing interested individuals to exchange a small sum of money for refreshment, discussion, negotiations and the exchange of ideas, and often included the sharing of news both verbally and through pamphlets and newsletters. If we take the sciences as one starting point, academies were formally established in London, Paris, Florence and Rome during the seventeenth century (Riskin, 2008 ; Hooper-Greenhill, 1992 ) and are seen by many as the first significant move towards professional meeting places beyond the
bought by a commercial company with a view to making money out of our individual activities? The same, of course, can be said of the large public social networks and the ways that they seek to monetise the collective and individual creativity of their users; there has been much discussion of the way that companies such as Google and Facebook use the information we wittingly and unwittingly provide (see, for example, Fuchs, 2014 ).
Kaplan and Haenlein ( 2010 ) present a typology of social media that is useful in orienting the way
must contain at least one main clause which, in turn, has to include a main verb. 10 A main verb is one which has a meaning on its own, one that can be found in a dictionary. Although the extract below contains two (italicised) strings of words punctuated as if they are sentences, both lack a main verb. The whole quotation appears in a novel as part of conversation, where the author is seeking to reproduce the way people speak.
Money’s tight. If one member of the family goes bust the burden falls on the rest. All shut up together. Nothing coming in