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The defence budget
Michael Clarke

T HE money allocated to defence is a critical element in a country’s ability to defend itself and field effective military forces. As with all policy areas, like health, education or social care, adequate resources are a prerequisite for satisfactory performance. In this case, however, headline figures for defence expenditure are also notoriously imprecise measures of military capability. Spending public money on defence is no guarantee that a country can deploy first-class armed forces. And since

in The challenge of defending Britain
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

9.1   Introduction The sterling money market located in London is a wholesale market for short-term funds and consequently provides facilities for economic units to adjust their cash position quickly. The rationale for its existence is that receipts of and payments in cash are not generally synchronised. Quite large cash balances are needed if

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
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Reforms, 1911 to 2015
Philip Norton

two chambers of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The country acquired a bicameral legislature. Parliament was summoned only when the king needed support – there were some lengthy periods when it was never called – and ultimate power rested with the monarch. However, within the first two centuries of its existence, Parliament developed functions that rendered it a significant political body. The king became dependent on Parliament's assent to raising money through taxation, and Parliament began to insist on grievances being redressed before it gave

in Reform of the House of Lords
Margaret Brazier and Emma Cave

estimating claims for future expenses, especially where the patient is so badly injured as to be unable to manage his own affairs. Large sums of money can be claimed to cover the cost of future care in expensive nursing homes. But there is no guarantee that that money will be so spent. The patient may be consigned to the NHS and the money deposited to grow with interest and eventually, when the patient dies, to form a windfall for relatives. The courts are alert to this danger. They will seek to ensure that the sum awarded is such as will be wholly exhausted by care of the

in Medicine, patients and the law (sixth edition)
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The challenge of defending Britain
Michael Clarke

-evidently right answers as to what Britain’s overall security policy should be. But the defence element within that security policy is not so obscure that it cannot be clearly understood, even though it is normally surrounded by specialist jargon and high-technology responses. The essential anatomy of what governments call ‘defence policy’ is not difficult to categorise, and the six chapters that follow examine each essential element in turn. It consists of the money that is allocated to it; the equipment the armed forces

in The challenge of defending Britain
Jonathan Gershuny

- service economy’, the subtitle of my 1978 book: ‘economy’ in this context, of course not denoting any sort of independent sphere of economic action (though the Greek origin of the term meant literally ‘household’ in the grand sense of ‘landed estate’). It was always clear to me that, in general, only those with secure paid employment would have the money to buy the domestic capital equipment and materials. This was simply a mechanism for acquiring some final services without the involvement of some specific sorts of paid final service labour: a contrast, in short, to

in Revisiting Divisions of Labour
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

this is termed a ‘fixed priced reoffer’ technique. The secondary market in eurobonds is mainly over the counter, with settlement being achieved via one of the international clearing systems (i.e. Euroclear or Clearstream). 11.3   Money market instruments issued through the eurosecurities markets In contrast to the longer

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

insurance company pays a capital sum on the death of the person assured, whenever that event occurs. An alternative form of life assurance is an endowment policy, where a capital sum is paid out at the end of some specified term or earlier if the assured dies within the term. Endowment policies may be ‘without profits’, in which case the money value of the benefit is fixed in advance, or

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Ben Cohen and Eve Garrard

position of Judaism in the contemporary enslaved world. Let us consider the actual, worldly Jew – not the Sabbath Jew , as Bauer does, but the everyday Jew. Let us not look for the secret of the Jew in his religion, but let us look for the secret of his religion in the real Jew. What is the secular basis of Judaism? Practical need, self-interest. What is the worldly religion of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly God? Money. Very well then! Emancipation from huckstering and money , consequently from practical, real Judaism, would be the self

in The Norman Geras Reader
Graham Crow and Jaimie Ellis

the development of capitalism. I conclude with a warning. However much I have stressed the importance of all forms of work in this book, it is clear that only the work of employment or self-employment generates income. And money is necessary to do all the other forms of work. In general, I can report that the work ethic is alive and well: people enjoy working and there is plenty to do. Often they may not particularly enjoy their employment, but they do enjoy and need the money that it brings. If there were a national minimum wage instead of the present

in Revisiting Divisions of Labour