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Theodore M. Porter

of the institution and partly to suggest ways to improve mental health in the population at large. Asylum numbers were understood to show the decisive role of certain causes of insanity, notably vicious or unwise behaviour in the form of alcohol consumption, masturbation, and heredity. Statistics and accounts Asylum reports distinguished between medical and administrative numbers. The former were denominated in numbers of persons, the latter most often in money terms. The alienists endeavoured to maintain a distinction

in Accounting for health
Dirk Luyten
David Guilardian

years later, the new specialised Cancer Institute Jules Bordet combined four floors for the poor with three floors for paying patients (who occupied one-third of the beds). 78 Despite these changes the public healthcare system kept losing money. By 1933, the CAP hospitals of the capital suffered a deficit of 9.5 million F. 79 Notwithstanding the hardships of public healthcare

in Medical histories of Belgium
Abstract only
Watering places and the money business
Sophie Vasset

cannot be denied that the phenomenon expanded throughout the eighteenth century, and that it represented an influx of money to local people, and to new investors who sometimes came from neighbouring cities deliberately to invest in the spa, spurring credit, patronage and advertising to increase their profits. In this closing chapter, and to follow up on the thread of the book, I would like to investigate the contemporary narratives on the murky dealings of spa town money. Investment, speculation and corruption were part of the picture of the

in Murky waters
Protecting egg donors’ reproductive labour in Kolkata, India
Meghna Mukherjee

wealthier patient precludes conditions for genuine altruism, based on both parties’ awareness of an irreconcilable class difference. The ‘gift of motherhood’ remains a financially coerced act. Although Pande ( 2011 ) treads the line of imposing a false consciousness on surrogates, her emphasis on the stark class inequality between surrogate and patient is important to the conditions surrounding bioavailability in the global south. Considering that donors in Kolkata are motivated by financial desperation, it is difficult to imagine how the transaction of eggs for money can

in Birth controlled
Abstract only
Sophie Vasset

politics could mend manners, launder money, or both. A chronological account of spa politics and economics in the long eighteenth century would most probably revolve around gambling and investing schemes. In the light of the revolutionary dealings starting with the controversy around the ridottos of the Belgian town of Spa, gambling started to be addressed as a political point of tension and potential health issue after the 1760s. From the 1780 Epsom horse races to the persistence of private gambling after the laws criminalising gambling were passed

in Murky waters
Intergovernmental relations, competing publics and negotiations at the grassroots
Jennifer Gunn

this heading as in the case of non-residents in need of assistance they are usually furnished a small amount of money to carry them to the next County.’ 29 Where the township system was in place (and more than one-third of the counties were on the township system), a county-level report might show no health officers and few or no health activities because the county authorities had no access to

in Publics and their health
Making white egg providers in the repro-hub of South Africa
Tessa Moll

professional society for fertility specialists, felt ZAR10,000 was too much money for compensation, driving the price up to unaffordable levels for locals and constituting coercion for egg providers. The Ministry of Health temporarily shut down the agency. It soon reopened, albeit following new regulations set out by SASREG that limited compensation to, at that time, a ZAR5000 (~ US$750 in 2004) flat rate per egg provision (it has now gone up to ZAR7000). Numerous other agencies opened subsequently; at one point in my research there were seven SASREG-accredited agencies, but

in Birth controlled
Conversations within and across South Asia
Sushmita Chatterjee
Deboleena Roy
, and
Banu Subramaniam

surrogacy in India. In addition to proposing a ban of commercial surrogacy, this bill also proposed to bar ‘foreigners, homosexual couples, people in live-in relationships, and single individuals’ from accessing surrogacy services, in effect making it only possible for the ‘straight Indian couple married for a minimum of five years’ to be eligible for such services ( The Hindu , 2016 ). The 2016 bill also outlined that only altruistic surrogacy performed by a close relative should be allowed, so that money does not serve as an incentive for a given surrogate. The

in Birth controlled
Activism, politics, and medicine in Norway, 1983–90
Ketil Slagstad
Anne Kveim Lie

‘a sexual relationship between two men involving a transaction’ and focused on the exchange of sex or company for material goods such as money, housing, or clothing. Instead of talking about ‘prostitutes’, the term ‘boys/men who have experience of prostitution’ was suggested in order to ‘avoid further stigmatisation of persons in a stigmatised and taboo group’. 73 While women usually worked in

in Histories of HIV/AIDS in Western Europe
Young women’s experiences of access to reproductive health in southern Africa
Kezia Batisai

. The narrative above also concurs with findings from Cape Town where women knowingly resorted to illegal providers of pregnancy termination services because of previous disappointment with the public sector facilities (Harries et al., 2015 ). Hence the need to improve public sector service delivery in the best interest of 83% of the South African population that relies on the public healthcare system (National Health Care Facilities Baseline Audit National Summary Report, 2013 ). The reliance happens in the absence of money for transport costs to and from

in Birth controlled