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Financialisation as a product of virtual fictitious financial capital
Aleksander Buzgalin and Andrey Kolganov

Shifts in productive forces have imparted a qualitatively new character to the capitalist economy in the twenty-first century. 1 The changes in the nature of commodities and the market have been discussed above; in this chapter, we will focus on the changes in the monetary and financial spheres. We will discuss the problem of transformation of the money under capitalism, from the form of credit money, serving the circulation of commodity capital, to money reflecting the prevalence of virtual

in Twenty-first-century capital
Thomas Robb

5 All out of money 1976–77 There is a difference between being a charitable benefactor and host to a parasite. William Simon’s explanation of US policy towards Britain during the IMF crisis1 Introduction Allegedly suffering from the first stages of Alzheimer’s disease, Harold Wilson announced he would resign as prime minister in March 1976. As one close associate of the prime minister recalled, Wilson had simply ‘had enough’.2 A battle for the party leadership (and thus to become prime minster) ensued which the ‘champion of the moderates’ James Callaghan

in A strained partnership?
Paradox or (sp)oiler of civil society activism?
Olajide O. Akanji

areas of training, supply of munitions, and funds. Nigeria and many foreign partners have held bilateral and multilateral meetings, and entered into some agreements over terrorism and terrorism-related issues, such as money laundering. For example, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger collectively established a multilateral relationship on counter-terrorism, with the establishment

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Abstract only
Actions and actors of the Anti-terrorist Liberation Groups
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

, reporting to Miguel Planchuelo, was entrusted with finding an isolated place conducive to the operation. A CESID internal memo of 3 November titled Actividades en el Sur de Francia ( Operations in Southern France ) provides a list of ETA targets, Lujua prominent among them. Sancristóbal and Álvarez approved the plan and Planchuelo and Amedo promised three French mercenaries one million francs to carry it out. Sancristóbal informed Barrionuevo, obtaining his approval and the money (18 million pesetas) from a secret ministerial fund. 23

in Counter-terror by proxy
The logics of ‘hitting the bottom’
Gunther Teubner

– in other words, for phenomena of collective addiction. ‘Hitting the bottom’ refers to the constitutional moment when either a catastrophe begins or societal forces for change of such intensity are mobilised that the ‘inner constitution’ of the economy transforms under their pressure. Plain money reform is one of several examples that illustrate a

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
Joanne Yao

The Danube as a connecting river represented the flow of European power and civilization outward to command the eastern periphery, but the river as conduit can flow both ways, and in the 1850s, instability at the far reaches of the Danube delta threatened to destabilize European politics. Chapter 5 examines the Paris Peace Conference to end the Crimean War and the creation of the European Commission of the Danube to ensure a civilized and rational authority to control the mouth of the river. At Paris, competing interpretations of the transboundary river as private property versus international commons again took the diplomatic stage, but imaginaries of the Danube delta as an untamed space at the fringe of European civilization moved diplomats, particularly the French and British, to reject the Rhine Commission model as too weak a body to control this untamed geography. Instead, diplomats at Paris created a strong commission with independent authority not only to conduct engineering works to clear shipping channels, but with the policing and judiciary powers to maintain order and the fiscal powers to borrow money on the international market. By the 1930s, the Commission had become such an extraordinary international actor that historian Glen Blackburn even described it as being ‘at the twilight of statehood’.

in The ideal river
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

and continued in neo-​colonial relations with independent states that were formerly colonies. The sheer cultural diversity resulting from the legacies of colonialism, foreign policy pursuits of the former imperial states and the fallout of post-​communism is a reminder of the variety of modes of living constructed across the spectrum of societies. Economies as relational: long-​distance trade Like migration, economic relations are about movement. Inter-​civilisational engagement constitutes economies as relational in the uneven and unequal spread of trade and money

in Debating civilisations
Vicki Squire, Nina Perkowski, Dallal Stevens, and Nick Vaughan-Williams

many millions of Afghans living there. It's a very hard situation, they are refugees, they have to pay the government once a year for living permit. I wanted to travel to see other places. That is the reason I decided to get out of Iran and come to Turkey. When I got to Turkey, I didn't have much money to come to Europe, so I didn't try it. Interviewer: So you didn't have a specific place in mind in Europe? IST2.06: No, only wanted to get to Europe. Of course I

in Reclaiming migration
Jack Lawrence Luzkow

public service, and the elimination of the love of money or the money motive. His most eloquent criticism of the latter was made in his “Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren,” delivered as a lecture to the Essay Society at Winchester College on 17 March 1928 and later published in 1930. The context for Keynes’ talk had to do with his trip to the Soviet Union in the summer of 1925, a visit that had caused him to reflect once again on the moral value of capitalism. The dilemma concerned the cost of economic progress that seemed to him to lead to the cultural

in The great forgetting
Scott N. Romaniuk, Emeka Thaddues Njoku, and Arundhati Bhattacharyya

the Money Laundering Prevention Act (MLPA) of 2002 and expanded it in 2009. However, in a renewed interest to strengthen its counter-terrorism measures (CTMs) to meet international standards, the government repealed the MLPA of 2009 and established the MLPA of 2012. Also, the 2009 Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA) was amended in 2012 and 2013 (Bangladesh Financial Intelligence Unit, 2013 ). As stated earlier, the

in Counter-terrorism and civil society