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A framework of inclusion and exclusion
Mark Webber

dimension, but equally have been characterised by intra-state conflict. Further, the general pattern of inter-state security relations in Europe has been more that of cooperation than conflict. The inaccuracy of Mearsheimer’s prediction stems from the logic of his theoretical starting point, that of neo-realism. For Mearsheimer states exist in an international system that is anarchic in the sense that there

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Adrian Hyde-Price

much traditional analysis of foreign policy has been grounded on realist assumptions about international anarchy and the state as ‘coherent units’ (Keohane and Nye 1977 : 24), there is a pressing need for conceptual and theoretical innovation in this field. New conceptual tools are particularly needed for analysing the external relations of the European Union, given its sui generis nature. Neo-realism offers little of value

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Open Access (free)
Kerry Longhurst

developments in German security policy since 1989. The aim of this chapter, consequently, is to consider the concept of strategic culture in greater detail and to locate it within the field of security studies. Contending approaches Neo-realism and German normalisation As the Cold War came to a close, a frenzy of analysis on the future of German security policy emerged. Consideration of how German post-Cold War security policy might develop reflected a far broader and fundamental discussion, within the discipline of international Longhurst, Germany and the use of force

in Germany and the use of force
A theory of foreign policy
Stephen Benedict Dyson

behave in accordance with the logic of the situation, and if it does not, is subject to punishment in terms of diminished security. This is the logic of neorealism, the dominant theoretical perspective in international relations for nearly thirty years.2 The logic is powerful, compelling, and a source of great insight into recurrent patterns of behaviour at an aggregate level such as war, balancing, and alliances. It is also a profoundly under-determined account of the foreign policy of a given state in a given situation. With the sole system-level variable in play

in The Blair identity
Abstract only
Susan Park

constructivist perspective, based on norms, culture and identity counter poses rationalist theoretical accounts of IO change. The latter includes neorealism, neoliberal institutionalism and the subsequent Principal–Agent (P–A) model, which are derived from micro-economics and assume that all actors are utility maximising egoists. Early constructivist scholarship posited that international norms were conveyed by IOs (and NGOs) to states, 3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 4 12/11/09 14:55 Page 4 World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists thus shaping state

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
Liberalism, realism, and constructivism
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki

to understand the simultaneous V4 divergence and Polish exceptionalism that can be observed most notably since the 2014 Ukrainian Crisis. To understand foreign and defense policy divergence in the V4, two theoretical frameworks present themselves. First, realism. Realist theories assume that states pursue power (classical realism) or survival (neo-realism), and, under conditions of security dilemma, they inevitably

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
Abstract only
Identity and socialisation
Susan Park

, IFC and MIGA 3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 20 12/11/09 14:56 Page 20 World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists reluctance may have been based on maintaining their identity based on a fixed interpretation of their mandate which informs their ability to act independently without the constraining influence of either member state oversight of TEAN monitoring. First, however, the limitations of rationalist approaches (neorealism, neoliberal institutionalism and the P–A model) to IO change are identified. States as determinants of IO change States

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
Timothy J. White

’s dilemma should not continue to cooperate if their opponent defects. This avoids the sucker’s payoff. It is not in any actor’s interest to be taken advantage of by another actor who has no interest in cooperation. This assumption conforms to neo-realism’s emphasis on the need for states to be prepared for any eventuality, including attack, in the anarchic international system.9 The need to defend oneself is well established in IR theory, and models of deterrence were built on the assumption that long-term patterns of hostile relations would yield better outcomes than

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen

’, Foreign Affairs, 69:5 (1990), pp. 91–106. Thomas U. Berger, ‘Norms, Identity, and National Security in Germany and Japan’, in Peter J. Katzenstein (ed.), The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press), pp. 326 and 328; Duffield, World Power Forsaken, p. 27; Hanns W. Maull, ‘Germany and the Use of Force: Still a “Civilian Power?”’, Survival, 42:2 (2000), pp. 56–80. For the original and most influential formulation of neo-realism, see Kenneth N. Waltz, Theory of International Politics (Reading, MA: Addison

in Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement
Open Access (free)
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

-state actors, but not regimes, while neo-realism downplays the influence and role of both regimes and non-state actors. Thus, Arts (2000) argues that relevant theories emphasise either regimes or non-state actors, or neither regimes nor non-state actors.3 A number of studies, however, show that non-state actors frequently make a difference in international cooperation.4 The roles of environmental nongovernmental organisations (ENGOs) and the scientific community have received increased attention, while the role of companies in international environmental politics has, until

in Climate change and the oil industry