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Stephan Frühling and Andrew O'Neil

characterised alliances as a by-product of the balance of power. As the balance of power shifted over time among states, so too did alliances, as they were based on shared interests in the balance of power, rather than shared interests per se. As the doyen of neorealism Kenneth Waltz observed, ‘alliances are made by states that have some but not all of their interests in common. The common interest is ordinarily a

in Partners in deterrence
Abstract only
Stephan Frühling and Andrew O'Neil

political link to the United States’, 44 but that political agreement did not always translate into material contributions. In formulating policy over Bosnia during the 1990s, the Bush and Clinton administrations ‘typically compromised with or accommodated the Europeans’ in an effort to preserve alliance unity, but Papayanou finds little clear support for neorealism or

in Partners in deterrence
Adrian Hyde-Price

much traditional analysis of foreign policy has been grounded on realist assumptions about international anarchy and the state as ‘coherent units’ (Keohane and Nye 1977 : 24), there is a pressing need for conceptual and theoretical innovation in this field. New conceptual tools are particularly needed for analysing the external relations of the European Union, given its sui generis nature. Neo-realism offers little of value

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Open Access (free)
Kerry Longhurst

developments in German security policy since 1989. The aim of this chapter, consequently, is to consider the concept of strategic culture in greater detail and to locate it within the field of security studies. Contending approaches Neo-realism and German normalisation As the Cold War came to a close, a frenzy of analysis on the future of German security policy emerged. Consideration of how German post-Cold War security policy might develop reflected a far broader and fundamental discussion, within the discipline of international Longhurst, Germany and the use of force

in Germany and the use of force
Raymond Hinnebusch

relations, this study will deploy a combination of several to capture its complex reality. The Middle East is arguably the epicentre of world crisis, chronically war-prone and the site of the world’s most protracted conflicts. It appears to be the region where the anarchy and insecurity seen by the realist school of international politics as the main feature of states systems remains most in evidence and where the realist paradigm retains its greatest relevance. Yet neo-realism’s 1 a-historical tendency to assume states systems to be unchanging

in The international politics of the Middle East
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Susan Park

constructivist perspective, based on norms, culture and identity counter poses rationalist theoretical accounts of IO change. The latter includes neorealism, neoliberal institutionalism and the subsequent Principal–Agent (P–A) model, which are derived from micro-economics and assume that all actors are utility maximising egoists. Early constructivist scholarship posited that international norms were conveyed by IOs (and NGOs) to states, 3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 4 12/11/09 14:55 Page 4 World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists thus shaping state

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
Liberalism, realism, and constructivism
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki

to understand the simultaneous V4 divergence and Polish exceptionalism that can be observed most notably since the 2014 Ukrainian Crisis. To understand foreign and defense policy divergence in the V4, two theoretical frameworks present themselves. First, realism. Realist theories assume that states pursue power (classical realism) or survival (neo-realism), and, under conditions of security dilemma, they inevitably

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

“art,” are awash with the same trappings of sentimentality … that are often considered negative in “commercial” narrative films’. 38 Karl Schoonover has discussed the international reception of Italian neorealism in relation to ‘the emergence of a new visual politics of liberal compassion’ and argues that for both American and European commentators alike ‘an emergent realist aesthetic of cinema could build new vectors of post

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
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Identity and socialisation
Susan Park

, IFC and MIGA 3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 20 12/11/09 14:56 Page 20 World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists reluctance may have been based on maintaining their identity based on a fixed interpretation of their mandate which informs their ability to act independently without the constraining influence of either member state oversight of TEAN monitoring. First, however, the limitations of rationalist approaches (neorealism, neoliberal institutionalism and the P–A model) to IO change are identified. States as determinants of IO change States

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
Katerina Loukopoulou

). This was another facet of the ‘Greek exception’ (alongside it being the only post-Civil War European country to receive the MP aid), because most of the MP films about a specific country were directed by national filmmakers, sometimes building on the country’s cinematographic and documentary tradition, as in the cases of Italy (neorealism) and the UK (the British Documentary Movement). Many MP films

in Global humanitarianism and media culture