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Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

witnessed the growth in importance of sub-regional and regional security organizations. Originally created as economic integration structures in the 1970s and 1980s, sub-regional economic communities, such as Economic Community of West African States or the Southern African Development Community, now play an essential role in the continent’s security architecture. Likewise, the AU’s charter and security mechanism have dramatically evolved since the days of the old Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) to assume a more proactive and cooperative peace and security role. The

in African security in the twenty-first century
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

Organization of African Unity (the predecessor of the modern African Union, AU) against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” (Department of Justice/FBI). Terrorism and extremism 89 to explicitly reject this label by accepting the notion that “all struggles undertaken by peoples for their full national independence …, including armed struggle, are entirely legal.”4 But even after accepting this moral and legal justification, the debate over terror tactics

in African security in the twenty-first century
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

Most of these principles are encapsulated in four crucial Charter provisions: Articles 1, 2, 55 and 56. 33 It is well known that a number of regional organisations (e.g. the Organization of American States (OAS), the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Association

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

–South conflicts. The League of Arab States (Arab League) and the Organization of American States (OAS), 73 founded in 1945 and 1948 respectively, were joined by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1963 and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. Although the Cold War inescapably influenced the formation and policies of these organisations, they added a

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

ago, the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity … appealed to the international community to give full support to the United Nations peacekeeping operations in Angola, and he further added that this was the time to strengthen the United Nations presence instead of withdrawing or reducing it, if Angola is to be prevented from sliding into

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Between expansionist ambitions and hegemonic constraints
Eric Lob

legacy of Rafsanjani's pragmatic active neutrality. 69 The MAJ's bilateral relations with African countries opened the door for Iran to join or play a role in multilateral organizations, including the African Union, the Organization of African Unity, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference. 70 In 2008, the African Union Commission visited Tehran to discuss expanding African–Iranian relations

in The Gulf States and the Horn of Africa
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

Organization of African Unity (OAU).159 Among the non-state actors opposing a given status quo, it is likely that the insurgents (often labeled as “terrorists”) will be among the most prolific rebels in current and future warfare.160 They are, however, not alone. Thomas X. Hammes describes the new security threats as originating in “the increasing power of smaller and smaller entities” that are part of networks, sharing information and resources in order to wreak large-scale havoc. These non-state actors represent “causes” not states or nations.161 The threat these entities

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare