humanitarian aid operations in Mogadishu.
The failure to address the worsening humanitarian situation in Somalia generated mounting international pressure for a large military humanitarian intervention. Although Africa lacked a powerful regional organisation such as the
EC, three organisations did adopt a proactive stance for Somalia’s assistance: the
OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU), the Arab League, and the OIC. They called
for heavy military intervention with official authorisation for the use of force. These
ideas received wide support from the international media and
This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
witnessed the growth in importance of sub-regional and regional security organizations. Originally created as economic integration structures
in the 1970s and 1980s, sub-regional economic communities, such as
Economic Community of West African States or the Southern African
Development Community, now play an essential role in the continent’s
security architecture. Likewise, the AU’s charter and security mechanism
have dramatically evolved since the days of the old OrganizationofAfricaUnity (OAU) to assume a more proactive and cooperative peace
and security role. The
OrganizationofAfricanUnity (the predecessor of the modern African Union, AU)
against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian
population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” (Department of Justice/FBI).
Terrorism and extremism
to explicitly reject this label by accepting the notion that “all struggles
undertaken by peoples for their full national independence …, including
armed struggle, are entirely legal.”4 But even after accepting this moral
and legal justification, the debate over terror tactics
Relations, 155–172; Link, Woodrow Wilson:
Revolution, War, and Peace, 98–99; Brendan Simms, Europe: The Struggle for
Supremacy, from 1453 to the Present (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 320–326;
Clive Archer, International Organizations, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 1992).
42 Mark W. Zacher, International Conflicts and Collective Security, 1946–77: The
United Nations, Organization of American States, OrganizationofAfricanUnity, and Arab League (New York: Praeger, 1979), 1.
43 Claude, Power and International Relations, 152.
44 Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement
Angola and the ties between Cuban troops and Katangan volunteers to denounce the invasion as a Cuban–Soviet aggression. Appeals to the OrganizationofAfricanUnity on this basis made little progress. While the OAU condemned the invasion, there was no concern regarding the alleged communist involvement. Similarly, American reactions were lukewarm. Realism and idealism intertwined in rejecting Mobutu’s appeal. First, Carter’s strategy for Central Africa relied on Nigeria, Zaire’s rival, as the key player in the region. Second, for an administration that had come to