(London: Cassell, 1981).
Malak Badrawi, PoliticalViolence in Egypt, 1910–1924: Secret Societies, Plots and Assassinations (Richmond: Curzon, 2000).
Iliya Marovich-Old, ‘Nationalism as resistance to colonialism: A comparative look at Malta and Cyprus from 1919–1940’, in
Sarukhan’s al-Masri Effendi cartoons in the first half of the
caricatured representations of everyman . However, one can ask if the state of colonial modernity to which he was subjected should not have driven him ‘into action’ in the caricatured world, in accordance with the political and social context in which he appeared. Governmental coercion and popular opposition characterised the first half of the 1930s, which resulted in hundreds of deaths and thousands wounded.
In this context of politicalviolence, young men, particularly students (i.e. effendi s), were seen as
a close, the brutality of the Rhodesian state intensified in response to challenges to settler power. 161 Jocelyn Alexander described these last years of Federation as ‘the worst politicalviolence since conquest’. 162 As the Southern Rhodesian ANC gained supporters, a state of emergency sought to suppress nationalist organisation. The National Democratic Party replaced the banned ANC in 1960 and in the same year African discontent erupted in the Zhii riots spread throughout urban areas. 163 The government used public order acts to restrict trade union
: I. B. Taurus , 1994 ), p. 34 ; David Welsh , ‘ Right-Wing Terrorism in South Africa ’, Terrorism and PoliticalViolence , 7 : 1 ( 1995 ), p. 251 .
10 Danelle van Zyl-Hermann, ‘White Workers and South Africa’s Democratic Transition, 1977–2011’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Cambridge, 2014), pp. 14–15, 78.
11 Mtisi et al. , ‘UDI Period’, p. 137; Godwin and Hancock, Rhodesians Never Die , p. 25.
12 P. A. Hardwick , ‘ Journey-to-Work Patterns in Salisbury, Rhodesia: The Contrast between Africans and Europeans ’, Journal of
force was insignificant alongside the global war of 1914–18, but
was high by British domestic standards. The government tried to ride it
out for several years, in part because of an abstract repudiation of
politicalviolence, but in greater part because of a concrete dislike of
Sinn Féin’s demands. Sinn Féin began as a movement of
non-violent civil resistance aiming to secure a dual monarchy on
The first of these was the consumption of hashish and opium, secondly
prostitution, and thirdly politicalviolence, each regarded as evils
that reflected particularly badly upon the British as a ‘ruling
race’. Race and sex were connected because of the perceived
threat posed by the marriage of British women to Egyptian men, and, more
notoriously, the white slave trade that marketed Europeans to the
The Rif war, the Syrian rebellion, Yen Bay and the Kongo Wara
in Syria until a major escalation of politicalviolence beginning
with a general strike in January 1936 unblocked the path to treaty
Rebellion in Indochina:
the Yen Bay mutiny and its aftermath
On 10 February 1930 Vietnamese
infantrymen of the Yen Bay garrison on the Red River north-west of
Hanoi mutinied, killing two French
”: Russian Radicals in Australia and the
Red Flag Riots’, in John
McNair and Thomas Poole (eds), Russia and the Fifth Continent: Aspects of
Russian-Australian Relations (St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1992), pp.
126–71; Don. W. Rawson, ‘PoliticalViolence in Australia’, Dissent: A
Radical Quarterly , 22 (Autumn 1968), 18–27.
See, for example, Englander, ‘National Union’,
27–28; Argus , 24 July 1919. The volatility and
Patterns of policing in the European empires during the depression years
forces almost everywhere: their struggle to contain organised political
opposition to imperial control. In this interpretation, policing and
politicalviolence are symbiotically linked. 31 Both fed off each other with
increasing appetite as resistance to colonial incursion persisted or, to
telescope forward to the post-1945 years, as the momentum for
decolonisation increased. Colonial policing was necessarily political
its ultimate climax. His
personal journey from committed nationalist to world-weary sceptic
traced the same arc followed by official statements, which eventually
retreated from their unbending support for a French Algeria to the
acceptance of divorce. Third and finally, Feraoun’s testimony
confirms that the way politicalviolence was experienced and the way it
was represented were two sides of the