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Abstract only
Adrian Millar

conflict has security as its goal. In such contexts the leitmotif ‘If we do not dominate, we will be dominated’ is created by astute propagandists and political manipulation, which all play on the presence of an enemy and the desire for survival. 2 For Lederach peace-building is about transforming ‘conflict towards more sustainable, peaceful relationships’. 3

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
Abstract only
The growth of terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria, 1999–2016
Jennifer Giroux and Michael Nwankpa

cent by replacing the Oil Minerals Producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC) with the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC), such measures failed to address the larger issues of oil exploitation, underdevelopment and environmental degradation. 51 By 2002, as JAS emerged in the north, years of political manipulation, poor community engagement practices within the oil industry, and communal and ethnic conflicts had encouraged the formation of armed groups and arms proliferation in the Niger Delta. On the one hand, this led to an increase in threats

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Peter Shirlow, Jonathan Tonge, James McAuley, and Catherine McGlynn

provoke and thus ensured that political manipulation of these emotive issues do not promote societal breakdown. However, it must also be noted that this line crossing and openness to dialogue has not signified the end of inter-community mistrust. Former prisoners have demonstrated in interviews that they can work with the other side without dropping their innate suspicions and

in Abandoning historical conflict?
Naomi Head

political manipulation, Fishkin argues, ‘The fact that the practice might conceivably be so successful that it robs the subordinate group of any desire to voice its interests is only an indication of how dramatically our conditions are violated.’ 17 Evident in both Alexy’s pragmatic rules for discourse and Benhabib’s principle of egalitarian reciprocity is a concern for forms of

in Justifying violence
Giuliana Chamedes

Materialism, 1871–1900 , Hayes had argued that American liberalism had cast aside Christian teachings and become increasingly secular and materialistic. In the process, it had put too much faith in democracy and nationalism, making itself thus vulnerable to political manipulation. In place of hyper-nationalism and the cult of democracy, Hayes advocated a return to Catholic principles and politics. Similar points were raised by Hoffman, in his 1945 speech before the United States Catholic Historical Association. Hoffman delivered the keynote at the

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
Clara Eroukhmanoff

consequently, not only can fear be challenged but it can disrupt the whole securitisation enterprise (van Rythoven 2015 ). What I find most problematic in this thesis is that emotions are tools of political manipulation – in other words, instruments to ‘use’ to gain desired outcomes, such as funding for surveillance operations (Robin 2004 ). In this view, emotions are considered as ontological tools that can be instrumentalised and ‘put into’ individuals to influence them to do things, to control them. The perception of emotions here is negative: they

in The securitisation of Islam