James Baldwin might be imagined as reaching his greatest level of popularity within this current decade. With the growth of social media activist movements like Black Lives Matter, which captures and catalyzes off a Baldwinian rage, and the publishing of works directly evoking Baldwin, his voice appears more pronounced between the years of 2013 and 2015. Scholars in Baldwin studies, along with strangers who were turned into witnesses of his literary oeuvre, have contributed to this renewed interest in Baldwin, or at least have been able to sharpen the significance of the phenomenon. Publications and performances highlight Baldwin’s work and how it prefigured developments in critical race and queer theories, while also demonstrating Baldwin’s critique as both prophetic and “disturbingly” contemporary. Emerging largely from Baldwin’s timelessness in social and political discourse, and from the need to conjure a figure to demystify the absurd American landscape, these interventions in Baldwin studies follow distinct trends. This essay examines the 2013–15 trends from four vantages: an examination of a return, with revision, to popular work by Baldwin; identifying Baldwin’s work as a contributor to theoretical and critical methodology; Baldwin and intertextuality or intervocality; and a new frontier in Baldwin studies.
, highlighting the exclusionary ways in which history is written and remembered and retelling similar stories from different perspectives to address issues as diverse as abolitionism and segregation, the relationship between science and faith, and predestination and grace, sex work and gender politics, and the state of politicalthought in the contemporary United States.
Robinson is similarly unconventional in her approach to a writing career. In a 2016 lecture published as “Our Public Conversation: How America Talks About Itself” (2018), Robinson makes the
’s identities as a ‘scientist’
and a ‘statesman’.11 It is certainly clear from several of his works
that Bacon found a degree of incommensurability between ethical
(specifically Christian) and civic values,12 and that many of the
conditions praised in his natural philosophy are condemned
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Ethics and politics
elsewhere in his writings. Markku Peltonen stresses that the
repeated identification of Bacon’s philosophical with his politicalthought relies upon a ‘rhetorical similarity’ which can obscure
the distinction Bacon makes between
, ‘ The subversive
“ Seulette ” ’, in M.
Brabant (ed.), Politics, Gender and Genre: The
PoliticalThought of Christine de Pizan
( Boulder, CO : Westview Press , 1992 ), pp. 157 – 69 . For
discussions of the voice of her political writings, see N.
Margolis , ‘ “The cry of the chameleon
, Duchess of Newcastle, Royalist,
Writer and Romantic (London: Chatto & Windus, 2003)
Wright, Joanne H., ‘Reading the Private in Margaret Cavendish: Conversations in
PoliticalThought’, in David Armitage (ed.), British PoliticalThought in History,
Literature and Theory, 1500–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006),
Anderson, Penelope, Friendship’s Shadows:Women’s Friendship and the Politics of Betrayal
in England, 1640–1705 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012)
Gillespie, Katharine, ‘Shades of Representation: Lucy Hutchinson
The poetics of suffrage in the work of Eva Gore-Booth and Constance Markievicz
the Anglo-Irish and
cooperation across sectarian lines; she fully espoused Tone’s vision of a
republic. Markievicz adapts his republican discourse to encode Irishwomen’s
suffrage in eighteenth-century politicalthought.
The Rising of 1798 is the subject of Constance and Casimir Markievicz’s
first major success for the Dublin theatres: The Memory of the Dead (1910).
It was not the first of their collaborations to have a strong female role.
The Dilettante, staged in 1908, has a feminist plot: an aristocratic widow
(Constance Markievicz) and the
Petitions, politics, and the African Christian converts of the nineteenth
politics is explored in André du Toit and Hermann Buhr Giliomee, Afrikaner PoliticalThought: Volume One: 1780–1850 (Cape Town: David Philip, 1983).
11 John Philip, Researches in South Africa; Illustrating the Civil, Moral, and Religious Condition of the Native Tribes: Including Journals of the Author’s Travels in the Interior; Together with Detailed Accounts of the Progress of the Christian Missions, Exhibiting the Influence of Christianity in Promoting Civilization (London: J. Duncan, 1828), p. xxvi.
12 This debate between John Philip and the settlers is
Katharine Tynan, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, and George Wyndham
infirm old man, stood a French colonel in his battle array’.3 The yeomen are
bloodily dispatched by O’Toole, ‘and the troubles of ’98 spent themselves
without crossing again from the [Irish] mainland’.4
Modern readers of Tynan’s work have not been kind, and it would be
difficult to argue that ‘The Story of Father Anthony O’Toole’ is anything
other than slight. Whatever its literary merit, though, it is representative
of Tynan’s politicalthought, for in eliding the complex political realities of
one of the most turbulent periods in modern Irish history, what
Gender, sexual difference and knowledge in Bacon’s New Atlantis
and Europe; and the
lecture by the Father of Salomon’s House on its work and philosophy. Two out of three of the directly narrated experiences
focus both explicitly and allegorically on gender and sexuality.
The description of the sexual division of labour at the feast and
the apparent allegorical functions of the gendered symbols have
exact cultural parallels in Jacobean politicalthought and praxis,
most notably, the interlinked contemporary discourses of
patriarchy and chastity. Many critics argue that the feast of the
family is a patriarchal model and proof that
Precedents to sustainability in nineteenth-century literature and
-century tradition of green ideas. David Pepper’s
survey, Modern Environmentalism (1996), identifies Romanticism and
Victorian ecological socialism (e.g. the work of William Morris) as precursors of contemporary environmentalism but neglects sustainability and
is guarded about Romanticism in particular. Likewise, Andrew Dobson,
in the fourth edition of Green PoliticalThought argues strongly against
any correspondence between the long Romanticist tradition and a contemporary ecological thinking whose specific elements, he argues, simply
were not there in the nineteenth century